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REPORT 



ON THE 



IGRATION OF BIRDS 



FIFTH REPORT, 1883. 



LONDON: 

fNTED BY WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

1884. 



Price Two Shillings. 



REPORT 



ON THE 



MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPRING AND AUTUMN OF 1883. 



BY 



Mr. J. A. HAKVIE BEOWN, Mr. J. COEDEAUX, 
Mr. E. M. BAEEINGTON, and Mr. A. G. MOEE. 



FIFTH REPORT. 



"A good practical naturalist must be a good observer ; and how many qualities 
are required to make up a good observer ! Attention, patience, quickness to seize 
separate facts, discrimination to keep them unconfused, readiness to combine them, 
and rapidity and yet slowness of induction ; above all, perfect fidelity, which can be 
seduced neither by the enticements of a favourite theory nor by the temptation to 
see a little more than actually happens in some passing drama." — Essays, Bishop 
Wilberforce, Vol. I. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

1884. 



PREFACE. 



The following Keport contains a summary of investigations 
of the Committee re-appointed by- the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at Southport, in 1883, to consist 
of Professor Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Mr. John 
Cordeaux, Mr. W. Eagle Clarke, Mr. K. M. Barrington, and 
Mr. A. G. More, for the purpose of obtaining (with the 
consent of the Master and Elder Brethren of the Trinity 
House, the Commissioners of Northern Lights, and the Com- 
missioners of Irish Lights) observations on the Migration of 
Birds at Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting on the 
same at Montreal, Canada, in 1884. Mr. Cordeaux to be the 
Secretary. 

The returns relating to Scotland have been arranged by 
Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown ; for the East Coast of England, 
by Mr. Cordeaux ; and those for the Coasts of Ireland, by 
Mr. R. M. Barrington and Mr. A. G. More. No return has 
been received by the Committee from the West Coast of 
England and the Isle of Man. 



CONTENTS. 



FAGK 

East Coast of Scotland 1 



East Coast of England 33 

West Coast of Scotland 63 

Coasts of Ireland 82 



FIFTH EEPORT 



ON 



THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPEING AND AUTUMN OF 1883. 



"We had a succession of black nights going up the river, and it was observable 
that whenever we landed and suddenly inundated the trees with the intense sun- 
burst of the Electric Light, a certain curious effect was always produced : hundreds 
of birds flocked instantly out from the masses of shining green foliage, and went 
careering hither and thither through the white rays, and often a song bird turned 
up and fell to singing. We judged that they mistook this superb artificial day for 
the genuine article." — Maek Twain, in ^Life on the Mississippi,' p. 452. 

•* Yea, even the fowl — 
That through the polar summer months could see 
A beauty in Spitzbergen's naked isles, 
Or on the drifted icebergs seek a home — 
Even they had fled, on southern wing, in search 
Of less inclement shores." — The Fowler. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND, &c. 

From Skykkesholm, in Iceland, comes our first return from 
that country since the commencement of our work. M. Thorlacius, 
to whom we are indebted for this return, writes as follows : — 
*' As this list cannot nearly comprise all the Icelandic birds of 
passage, of which especially the sea-birds are wanting, I shall 
complete this by next mail, and send you the continuation along 
with a complete list of the appearances of birds of passage in 
the present year (1883). The dates quoted opposite each species 

B 



2 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

is the day on which they were first observed here. The approxi- 
mate date of departure will be given later." 

The following notes are copied direct from M. Thorlacius' 
schedule, and are most useful to the Committee, serving as they 
do as finger-posts on the route of migration, indicating the im- 
portant dates of arrival at their breeding-quarters of Icelandic 
summer migrants. When M. Thorlacius sends his autumn 
departures of migrants and the other good things he so kindly 
promises us, we will have useful standpoints, the spaces between 
which can be more easily filled in when these are fixed : — 

Skykkesholm, Iceland, 1882, lat. G^"" 4' N. ; long. 22 43' W. 

April 7th, Turdiis iliacus, S., very fresh ; rain. 

May 8th, Saxicola oenanthe, S.E., light air; clear. 

April 24th, Motacilla alba, N.E., stormy; clear. 

May 24th, Anthus pratensis, N.E., storm; light showers. 

April 25th, Scolopax gallinago, N.E., storm; light showers. 

April 19th, Totanus calidris, E., very fresh; dry. 

May 11th, Numenius phceopus, N.E., very fresh ; light showers. 

April 17th, Charadrius pluvialiSj N.E., very fresh; clear. 

April 19th, Tringa alpina, N.E., very fresh; clear. 

May 3rd, T. cinerea, E., blowing hard ; clear. 

April 29th, Strepsilas collaris, N.E., storm; snow showers. 

April 26th, Tringa hiaticula, N.E., scorm ; dry. 

May 23rd, Phalaropus cinerea, N.E., blowing hard; clear. 

May 24th, P. platyrhinclia, N.E., storm; snow showers. 

April 9th, Falco ccesius, N.E., very fresh; rain. 

April 9th, Limosa melanura, N.E., very fresh ; rain. 

April 9th, Hcematopus ostralegus, N.E., very fresh; rain. 

March 30th, H, ostralegus. 

April 30th, Fringilla linaria, N.E. storm, cloudy; rain. 

April 30th, Loxia serinus, N.E. storm, cloudy ; rain. 

March 15th, Uria grylle, K'.E. ; clear, 

March 15th, U. brunnichii, N.E. ; clear. 

March 15th, U. troile, N.E. ; clear. 

March 15th, U. alle, N.E. ; clear. 

March 15th, Alca torda, N.E.; clear, hard. 

April 25th, Mormon f rater cula, N.E., very fresh. 

April 30th, Carlo cormoranus, N.E., light air. 

April 30th, C. graculus, N.E:, light air. 

April 30th, Puffinus arcticvs, N.E., light air. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 3 

Faroe. — From Faroe, thanks again to our friend Herr H. C. 
Miiller, we have the following report, some twelve entries or so 
between Jan. 1st and Sept. 10th, 1883 : — 

On Jan. 1st three Wild Swans, (7. musicus^ seen flying S. at 
noon. On April 28th one GaUinula chloropus, Waterhen, taken 
alive in Vaay in Bordo. Between May 3rd and 11th several 
White Wagtails seen during N.N.E., stormy, with snow at diffe- 
rent localities in the islands. On May 27th two Eed-necked 
Phalaropes were seen on the sea near Thorshavn during S.W. 
wind, moderate, with showers of rain. 

In August White Wagtails again appeared, when several 
were seen on the 21st at Thorshavn at noon, fresh W. breeze 
and clear. Between Aug. 28th and Sept. 10th, Whimbrels (see 
under Whimbrel, Curlew) were preparing for departure, and 
disappeared on the last-named date. During this time the winds 
were from N.W. on Aug. 28th by N. to N.E. on Aug. 30th to 
Sept. 3rd, and W. on the 10th, the day of departure. 

Note. — Herr H. C. Miiller informs me that a lighthouse will 
be shortly erected at Nossoe, in Faroe, eighty feet above the sea. 
Herr Miiller considers that this will prove a good station for 
observing birds during migration. Suderoe would also be a good 
observatory. He also told me of the occurrence, for the first 
time, of Sciurus novehoracensis at Nordtalik, Greenland, about 
May, 1882 ; and of the occurrence also of a young Sabine's Gull 
at the same place. I have a young Sabine's Gull, brought home 
last year (1883) by the whalers to Dundee. 

Of the progress of the scheme of accumulation of migrational 
data in other parts of the world, we may notice here that Dr. 
Arthur proposes to take up the subject at the lighthouses in New 
Zealand, and will send the Committee his schedules for arrange- 
ment. 

Our American friends have made a promising start with 
similar intentions, but of a much wider scope, as is shown by 
the circular, which we here reprint, as it will show to our 
reporters other collateral subjects which offer plenty of oppor- 
tunity for observation, and which can easily be made as applicable 
here as in North America, as regards our commoner species. 
Schedules somewhat more elaborate than ours have been issued 
also to lighthouses in America : — 

*' At the first congress of the American Ornithologists' Union, 



4 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

held in New York City, Sept. 26th— 28th, 1883, a Committee 
on the Migration of Bii'ds was appointed. It is the purpose of 
this Committee to investigate in all its bearings, and to the 
fullest extent possible, the subject of the migration of birds in 
the United States and British North America. The work will 
not be limited to the accumulation of records of the times of 
arrival and departure of the different species, but will embrace 
the collection of all data that may aid in determining the causes 
which influence the progress of migration from season to season. 
For example, severe storms, gales of wind, protracted periods of 
unusually high or low temperature (for the locality and time of 
year) are among the atmospheric conditions that are known to 
exert marked effects upon the movements of birds. The opening 
of the leaves and the flowering of certain plants, with the corre- 
lative appearance of a multitude of insects, are also among the 
factors that have to do with the abundance of many species. 
Hence the careful registration of certain meteorological pheno- 
mena, and of the state of advancing vegetation from day to 
day, will constitute prominent items in the record books of the 
observer. 

" For convenience in collecting and arranging the enormous 
mass of material which will be accumulated by the joint labom-s 
of this army of field workers, it has been deemed advisable to 
divide the vast expanse of territory embraced in the United 
States and British North America into thu-teen districts, each of 
which will be placed under the immediate direction of a com- 
petent superintendent." 

Some time ago we received application from China for 
schedules and letters of instructions, but as yet we have had 
no further communication from that quarter. We would be glad 
to hear of the scheme being started there also. Most of the 
lighthouse-keepers there are Scotch and English. 

The ordinary papers were sent to thirty stations on the East 
Coast of Scotland, Faroe, and Iceland, as in former years. 
Twelve stations on this coast have sent in forty-two schedules 
out of the twenty-six E.C. stations of Scotland. All returns are 
much lighter than in 1882, and this is more readily noticed when 
we compare the numbers of schedules returned from our prin- 
cipal stations. Thus, from Sumburgh Head we have three ; from 
Pentland Skerries twelve (three more than in 1882) ; from Bell 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



Kock two ; and from Isle of May only ten, as against nineteen 
in 1882. 

East Coast of Scotland. 



79 '80 '81 '82 '83 



4. N. Unst, Shetland 230 ft. J.Edgar. 

5. Whalsey Skerries, Sliet. 143 ,, 

6. Bressay, Shetland 105 ,, 

7. Sumburgh Head, Shet. 300 ,, D. M. Scott. 



Land Notes. — 7b. Fair Isle. 



* * 



* * 



* * 






>!< sic 



Orkney. 

8. North Eonaldshay 140,, 

9. Start Point 80 ,, 

* 10. Auskerry 110 ,, 

11. Hoy Sound (Low) 55 ,, 

12. Hoy Sound (High) 115 ,, 

13. CantickHead 115,, 

- 14. Pentland Skerries 170 ,, 

Mainland. 

* 15. Dunnet Head, Caithness 346 ,, 
16. Holborn Head, Caithness 75 ,, 

=:= 17. Noss Head, Caithness... 175 ,, 

* 18. Tarbat Ness, East Eoss 175 ,, 

* 19. Cromarty, E. Cromarty 60 ,, 

* 20. Chanonry, Point Elgin 40,, 

21. Covesea Skerries 160 ,, 

22. Kmnaird Head, Aberdeen 120 ,,| 

23. Buchan Ness, Aberdeen 130 „ 

24. Girdleness, Aberdeen ... 185 ,, 

25. Montroseness, Aberdeen 124 ,,11 

* 26. Bell Kock, Fife Coast ... 93 „ 

- 27. L of May, Firth of Forth 240 „ 
=^ 28. Inch Keith, F. of Forth 220 „ 

29. St. Abbs Head, Berwicks 224 „ 



J. McDonald. 



[D. McDonald.! 
J. Gilmour. 



D. Laidlaw. 
D. Laidlaw. 
A. Greig. 
W.Davidson. J 
K. S. Eitson. 
J. McGill.§ 



J. Jack. 
J. Agnew. 
E. Grierson. 



f Mr. D. McDonald removed from Pentland Skerries to Skervuile (W. C.) 
about July 26th, up to which time he sent returns from Pentland Skerries. 
Thereafter Mr. J. Gilmour took in hand the returns at the latter station. 

I I have to thank Mr. W. Davidson for the first schedule received from 
Tarbat Ness. Between Aug. 15tli and Oct. 30th there are only eleven 
entries,' all light, of ten different dates only. This schedule is valuable for 
its negative evidence, just as other more favoured localities for migi'ants give 
valuable positive evidence. Can I not induce others to return even empty 



6 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

From Kinnaird Head Lighthouse I have the following reply 
to my inquiry : — *' Birds at this lighthouse are every year getting 
more scarce, as the town is now extended to the lighthouse, and 
cooperage works at the very gate make much noise, and sparks 
of fire fly ahout whilst making the barrels. At the same time 
Mr. D. M. Scott, now at Sumburgh Head, tells me he has once 
caught, in one watch, forty-eight Starlings at the lantern, and 
some Thrushes. 

I have also to thank Mr. Alexander Greig for the first return 
from Noss Head. The movements of Gannets, as related there, 
cannot fail to be of use to the Committee. Mr. Greig says, 
" There has been great scarcity of birds this last year, except 
those which are generally with us." 

schedules at the end of the year, with the simple remark "No Birds" or 
"FewBu-ds" attached, if such is the case? Then our Committee would 
have certainty to go by, not merely hypothesis. Mr. Davidson gives me 
the further information regarding this station, that he observed no further 
migration since Oct. 30th, the weather being so mild. It is usually before 
any changes in the weather that we see any birds passing here besides the 
birds which frequent the locahty. The situation of Tarbat Ness is a very 
high tower, 175 feet, and is joined to farmhouses. It is not much sheltered, 
the tower being on the bare point. At some seasons great quantities of birds 
are seen {iniit., Jan. 20th, 1884). 

§ At Chanonry lighthouse the schedule, again kindly returned by Mr. 
McGill, pretty clearly indicates and illustrates the action of local migrations. 
Thus he tells us : — " There are plenty of Black Crows, which fly between this 
and Nairn every daj^ for feeding in the morning, and fly back at night. A 
great many grey ducks come down on this Firth for the purpose of feeding. 
It would seem they do not migrate. There are several flocks of birds which 
seem to fly north the one day and in a few days to fly back to the south ; 
they seem to be the same flocks that have been feeding." From Chanonry 
Mr. McGill writes: — "Only one bnd has struck the lantern since I came 
here in the summer of 1882, and only two Ughted on the lantern. None 
killed." The returns from this station almost all relate to local movements, 
but are not on this account less valuable, but rather more so, as gi^'ing good 
opportunity of making comparisons and deductions. Most of the occurrences 
are attended by highly developed pressures, squalls, strong breezes, &c., but 
the directions of these are not given. 

II Mr. D. M. Scott, who left this station, removed to Sumburgh Head. 
He sent the description of a bird fi'om Kinnaird Head in 1882, but no 
schedule. Scarcity is the true reason of lack of returns from this station. 
Mr. Scott has sent well-filled schedules since from Sumburgh Head. 

IT "No Birds" at Montroseness, reason given for absence of returns in 
1882 (q. v.). 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 7 

Through Mr. Thomas Southwell's kindness I have received a 
few items of interest from the log of the whaler * Eclipse,' Capt. 
D. Gray. Also a note from Mr. T.H. Nelson, taken on board the 

* Camoens,' 150 miles N.N.W. of Orkney ; as also a note or two, 
through the kindness of Mr. Eobert Gray, taken on board the 

* Marathon' in the Atlantic by Mr. Thomas Anderson. These are 
now given ; and the land notes will be entered after the para- 
graphs on each species or group. 

'Eclipse.'— March 28th, 1883, 70° 7' north, 3° 40' west, saw 
but one Hooded Seal to-day, but plenty of Botches, Looms, 
Snow Birds, and Mallemauks. April 19th, 69° 53' north, 5° 30' 
west, saw a few Bottlenose Whales, and at night a Merlin lighted 
on the fore-topsail-yard, and there fell asleep, and was afterwards 
caught. He seemed very tired and weak. I made a box for him, 
and fed him on small pieces of meat. April 22nd, the Hawk 
seems to be thriving ; he is kept below during the day and on 
deck when it is fine. April 24th, 68° 29' north, 9° 12' west, let 
the Hawk away at 10 a.m. He flew straight to S.W. At 2 p.m. 
spoke the * Catharine ' brig. Whilst speaking the * Catharine ' I 
was astonished to see my old friend the Hawk sitting on one leg 
in the lower quarter boat, looking very disconsolate, and, when 
scared, immediately flew to the * Catharine.' He had evidently 
come across that vessel at sea, and had flown on board her. 
May 2nd, 68° 20' north, 11° 30' west, a great many birds about 
the ship, a few hundreds of Mallemauks, and numerous Snow 
Birds, Burgomasters, Snow Buntings, two Eider Ducks, and one 
Iceland Falcon. May 4th, the vessel was followed by a good 
many Mallemauks, Burgomasters, Snow Birds, &c. May 18th, 
69° 37' north, 9° 9' east, in the morning a Loom alighted on the 
main-topsail-yard, and Botches have been numerous, besides the 
usual number of Mallemauks, Kittiwakes, Snow Birds, and 
Burgomasters. May 22nd, 69° 59' 3° west, about 65 miles N.N.E. 
from Jan Mayen, "a few Bottlenose Whales seen during the day, 
and several Black-headed Gulls and Whimbrels." [This is an 
interesting note in the distribution of the Whimbrel, which 
species Capt. Gray knows well, having brought home skins before 
now, all the way from the coast of S. Greenland, and others have 
arrived, brought by other whalers, at least two of which are in 
our collection.— J. A. H. B.] June 10th (70° 32' north, V 29' 
west), a Swallow or Martin seen. May 16th (about 67° 41' north, 



8 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

14° 34' west), two birds known at home as Wheatears and Water 
Wagtails [" Watee Wagtails " (sic) local in Forfar.— J. A. H. B.] 
came on board and died. They were experiencing very heavy 
weather at the time. 

* Marathon.'— October 12th, 1883 (46° 43' north, 35° 39' west), 
six or seven Snow Buntings flew on board, winter plumage, wind 
fresh N.W., and only two remained, the others leaving to go to 
another vessel passed by the * Marathon.' The other vessel had 
a deck-load of wood. — E. G. 

' Camoens.' — Mr. T. H. Nelson writes : — ** A friend of mine took 
a trip to Iceland in the * Camoens ' last October. On Oct. 14th, 
150 miles N.N.W. of Orkney, a Starling flew on board. On the 
journey both there and back, viz., between Oct. 18th and Dec. 
3rd, a great many small birds were seen flying south, but my 
friend was not well enough versed in Ornithology to be able to 
identify them." 

Notes are presented upon about seventeen species of water- 
fowl and fifty-four species of land birds, and about thirteen 
species of waders or littoral species, by our east coast reporters. 

Spring migration having been more considerable this season, 
I keep separate in this Eeport. 

The movements recorded occupy the whole year, from date 
of February to June, during spring, and from date of July to 
January, during autumn. 

Separate Eeport under Genera and Species. 

TuRDiDiE. — In spring a considerable migration noticed at 
certain stations, viz., Pentland Skerries, Bell Eock, and Isle of 
May. Began Feb. 2nd, when a rush of Song Thrushes took 
place at Bell Eock, and terminated May 10th, when, and upon 
the 9th, there were indications of another rush of Fieldfares and 
Eing Ouzels. Whilst Song Thrushes, Eedwings, and Blackbirds 
seem usually to travel together, the larger-winged Fieldfares and 
Eing Ouzels are usually associated in our returns, though not 
invariably. Although this spring migration was spread over 
such a very considerable time, none of -the returns are very 
heavy ; but indications of rushes are sufficiently distinct. At 
Bell Eock, as above stated, on Feb. 2nd, strong E.N.E., with 
haze. Fieldfares and Eing Ouzels; at Isle of May, on March 
2nd, light W., clear, Thrushes and Blackbirds — a decided but 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



not large rush, which stopped abruptly with wind changing to 
gales from S.E. to E.N.E. and to N.W. [see Third Keport, General 
Kemarks, p. 67. — J. A. H. B.). In April, light but fairly con- 
tinuous entries at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May, but little 
indication of a general movement, except on April 27th, when a 
good many Fieldfares and Eing Ouzels were noted at Isle of May, 
wind fresh S.E. Prevailing winds up to termination of spring 
migration, easterly along whole coast. On May 2nd, and again 
on 9th and 10th, there were faint indications of rushes at Isle of 
May, principally of Fieldfares. 

In autumn the migration was pronounced, and confined prin- 
cipally to October and November. Yet the earliest record we 
have yet received in Scotland in our schedules occurred on Aug. 
28th, at Isle of May, of two Song Thrushes, followed by a single 
record on Sept. 21st ; also at Isle of May, " a few Kedwings and 
Eing Ouzels." Again, passing at present over October and 
November, only one record in December of a solitary Fieldfare on 
the 5th ; and in January, 1884, a flock on the 7th and three birds 
on the 22nd, during a wild W. gale. The month of October has 
many entries, and I find the word '' rush " opposite the following 
dates and stations : — At Pentland Skerries and Isle of May, but 
not at Bell Bock, on 13th — 15th, hundreds of Eedwings and Eing 
Ouzels, also Blackbirds and Thrushes, besides many other birds 
whose names I will give later. Also at N. Unst a few stragglers 
rested on the 16th, and then flew south, with strong S.E. wind 
and haze. Again, from about Oct. 28th to Nov. 5th, a great 
movement, developing into vast rushes, between Oct. 30th and 
Nov. 3rd, on which latter day a Dipper (Cinclus) was seen on the 
Isle of May ; twice fired at for the collection, but escaped. The 
stations, N. Unst, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Tarbat 
Ness, Bell Eock, and Isle of May participated (maximum at Isle 
of May), but also large numbers at Pentland Skerries, Bell Eock, 
and goodly appearance at Sumburgh Head on Nov. 1st. On 
Oct. 13th — 15th wind was S., but shifted to W. at Isle of May. 
On Oct. 28th and 29th wind was S., light and clear ; and on 30th 
to Nov. 1st still prevailing southerly and westerly. Mr. Agnew 
states that the rush on 13th — 15th was the largest ever witnessed 
by him at Isle of May with a due S. wind, S.E. being usually the 
most productive. Having detailed the movements and given 
dates and circumstances of these rushes, I will now name the 





10 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

other species which participated in them, and refer back to this 
paragraph afterwards throughout the Report. During the 
October rush, 13th — 15th, Redwings in hundreds ; Ring Ouzels, 
Bramblings, Larks, Woodcock, Short-eared Owl, Yellow Bunting, 
Eider Ducks in large flocks ; Chaffinches, Crows (Carrion and 
Hooded), Jackdaws (the largest flock ever seen at Isle of May), 
Bramblings, Tree Sparrows, Blackbirds, Thrushes, and one 
Missel Thrush ; besides, in smaller numbers. Wagtails, Red- 
starts, Hawks, &c. During the great October to November 
rush the following participated : Sandpipers, Snow Buntings, 
Skylarks, as far as N. Unst ; and southwards. Lapwings, Grey 
Crows, Robins (smaller numbers), Linnets, Chaffinches, Star- 
lings. At Sumburgh Head a large migration of Thrushes, 
with Starlings, Larks, and Linnets ; many killed. At Pent- 
land Skerries rush began on 20th, and also at Isle of May, 
principally Turdidce and Emherizidce. At Bell Rock, on Oct. 
31st — Nov. 1st, rush began at 7 a.m. Mr. Jack writes : — 
*' Immense numbers killed. I have no doubt they were killed in 
hundreds. What we think were Woodcocks struck with great 
force. Birds continued flying within the influence of the rays 
of light till the first streak of day, continually striking hard all 
night, and falling into the sea. Although we cannot be sure, we 
think there was a great number of Woodcocks struck and fell 
into the sea."* Species of Turdidce seven, including Cinclus. 

Saxicolin^. — In spring considerable arrival of at Pentland 
Skerries, Bell Rock, and Isle of May. Earliest (a single Stone- 
chat (vera) S. ruhicola) on March 20th,. at Isle of May, with 
light E. wind and haze. [N.B. — In our Third Report, p. 8, the 
first record was on 29th of W^heatear, but this record in Mr. 
Agnew's schedule was entered as " Stonechat." Owing to the 
confusion existing between the Wheatear and '' Stonechat" it is 
usually almost impossible to know to which the name Stonechat 
is applied. The true Stonechat is very like a Whinchat, and in 
no respect resembles the Wheatear, except in the sound of 
its voice.] The next earliest was of three Redstarts (or Fire- 
tails), on March 29th, also at Isle of May, S.E. fresh, haze. 

* What a loss of useful food to the lighthouse-keepers, which might per- 
haps be saved to them by a few long poles and an old herring-net stretched 
round and outside the balcony. This fact is sm*ely worthy of the attention 
of the Commissioners and all Directors of our Lighthouse Stations. 



i 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 11 

Indications of a rush of Wheatears between April 5tli and 13th, 
at Isle of May ; and much lighter indications of single birds at 
same dates at Pentland Skerries. Kedstarts scarce; two on 
April 27th, one on 26th at Isle of May, and a few at same place. 
These in every instance with light or fresh S.E. winds in April, 
and light N.E. in May. 

In autumn a considerable migration, commencing on August 
20th ; first record at Isle of May — '* Stonechat " [one earlier 
record occurs at same place on July 14th, but it is perhaps 
difficult to say to what this belongs, as Wheatears breed annually 
on Isle of May] ; one killed at lantern. Fresh N.W. wind, and 
terminating as far as schedules indicate, by Nov. 11th. In this 
statement are included Wheatears, " Stonechats," [true Stone- 
chats identified], Eedstarts ; but there are no records at any 
stations of Wheatears or Stonechats between Sept. 12th and 
Nov. 1st. October is, curiously enough, entirely blank of any 
returns of SaxicolincB, and there are only two records in Novem- 
ber. The rushes took place end of August, culminating on the 
night of Sept. 2nd — 3rd, when a great rush of Wheatears, 
Eedstarts, and also Chiffchaffs, Kobins and Sedge Warblers, 
Wood Warblers, and Golden and Grey Plovers took place. The 
absence of any record of Thrushes or Turdidce at this date at 
any of the stations is noteworthy. Mr. Agnew writes : — " The 
night of Sept. 2nd was very stormy, wind S.E., shifting to N.E., 
with heavy rain. The birds were all in large numbers through- 
out the night, except a Blue-throated Warbler, adult, which was 
solitary." On the 12th, nearly all Wheatears left the Isle 
of May. On the 4th, at Pentland Skerries, a rush all day. with 
strong N. wind and rain. Indications at Bell Eock very faint 
throughout. In the vast rush of Turdidce and other species 
(see Turdidce under date) of Nov. 1st, one solitary Wheatear is 
first recorded, the first notice since Sept. 12th. In all three spe- 
cies of SaxicolincB with certainty. 

Note. — The true Wheatear, "white on the rump," is intended 
in the return from Pentland Skerries. , 

SiLviiN^. — In spring, earliest record (Eobin) is March 18th, 
at Pentland Skerries, and with an E.S.E. gale and sleet; and 
the latest (also Eobin) on May 11th, at Sumburgh Head, fresh, 
S.S.E. A rush of Eobins at Isle of May on April 26th, when 
"large numbers" appeared; fresh, S.E. and haze. Eobins dis- 
appeared from Cromarty station on March 30th. 



12 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

In autumn, earliest record at Isle of May on Aug. 16th, — 
Whitethroat, — when almost a rush might be recorded. On the 
23rd again, at same place, large numbers of Whitethroats and 
Titmice. At Cromarty station Eobins reappeared, about a dozen 
being seen on Sept. 15th, the first since spring. On Sept. 15th, 
a rush of Eobins at Isle of May, and on 22nd. Winds on 
all these dates easterly, with fog, and on 15th *' flying banks 
of fog." Eecords also of Blackcap on 10th, and more Blackcaps 
on 2Brd ; that on 10th with light W. wind, the others light E. 
No records in October except at Chanonry, two on 15th, strong 
squalls and S.W. Small numbers beginning of November, 
amongst Thrushes, &c., q. v. stations ; Pentland Skerries, light ; 
Dunnet Head, one record ; the latest on Dec. 28th ; and 
Jan. 30th, at Chanonry ; light squalls and sleet. Bell Eock and 
Isle of May (maximum). Blue-throated Warbler on night 
of Sept. 2nd — 3rd. In all three species. 

Philloscopin^. — In spring a distinct movement of Gold- 
crests, but nothing to compare with the autumn rush of 1882, 
though comparing favourably with the spring rush of the same year. 
Earliest record, April 1st, Isle of May; then singly or in small 
numbers till 13th, when rather more, along with other species. 
Latest date of Goldcrests or other Leaf-warblers, April 16th, at 
Pentland Skerries; one Goldcrest ; light N.E., clear. The first 
Chiffchaff on April 26th; also at Isle of May; wind S.E. and 
haze ; and some again on May 2nd ; and Willow Warblers and 
Chiffchaffs on May 15th. 

In autumn a rush at Isle of Ma}^ and no previous records ; 
on Sept. Brd (see Saxicolince) ; on the 2nd a S.E. gale, changing 
light W., very dark. Scattered records running through 10th, 
11th, to 15th, when another rush of Willow Warblers and Chiff- 
chafi's, and a solitary Goldcrest on 22nd, with a rush of Eobins. 
Goldcrests did not put in an appearance much before Oct. 10th, 
when a rush took place that night, with light E. wind and cloudy, 
again at Isle of May. Mr. D. M. Scott speaks of the " smallest 
wrens he ever saw," which were seen at Sumburgh Head, on 
Oct. 28th, which were probably of this species. Stations 
recording are Sumburgh Head (one record) ; Tarbat Ness (one 
record on Oct. 30th [some years Caithness gets a large share 
of Goldcrests] ; and Isle of May. Three species. 

Parid^e. — A few scattered notices in April and May at Pent- 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. IB 

land Skerries on April 25th, 27th and 29th, with S. easterly and 
N.E. wind ; rain, haze or clear ; and at same place on May 13th. 
Note. — Mr. MacDonald distinguishes between ''Titmice" and 
** Tomtits." Titmice are probably Cole Tits, and *' Tomtits " 
Blue Tits, Parus cceruleus. 

In autumn, in September, a few at Isle of May, on 4th, 5th, 
18th, 19th ; on the 4th and 19th, travelling with " Stonechats "; 
also at Isle of May ; winds westerly and northerly. In October, 
one record at Inchkeith ; wind light S.W., which seems the 
usually chosen wind at this locality for birds migrating. In 
November, on the 18th, one bird, which is either a Cole Tit or a 
Great Tit, at Isle of May. 

AcROCEPHALiN-E — AccENTORiN^. — A Solitary record of one 
Sedge Warbler, at Isle of May, on May 17th, constitutes the 
whole spring returns. 

In autumn, only two records in all ; one at Isle of May on 
Sept. 12th, of one Sedge Warbler, with light S.E., haze and 
rain; and the other on Oct. 11th, at same place, of a Hedge 
Sparrow (*' Blue Janet " of Schedule). One species of Marsh 
Warblers, and one probably Saxicolince. 

Troglodytin^, Common Wren. — On April 9th, one struck 
and killed (No. 66, in spirits) ; light W., clear ! 

In autumn, on Aug. 18th, at Sumburgh Head, a few 
remained two days; light W. and haze. Wrens not in large 
numbers accompanied rush of other migrants on Sept. 22nd and 
23rd; fresh E. and very dark, at Isle of May. In October, one 
record at N. Unst, resting at 10 a.m. ; S.W., light and haze (" a 
rare visitor.") It would be interesting to know if this was one 
of the large-footed form found in Faroe (T. Faroensis), or our 
common species.* In November, a few on 7th at Isle of May ; 
and at Tarbat Ness, one on Oct. 27th ; in November, three seen 
at Sumburgh Head, with strong breeze and hailstones. 

MoTACiLLiDiE. — In Spring, at Pentland Skerries and Isle 
of May. Earliest, March 2nd, at Isle of May ; light W., clear ; 
with a rush of other migrants. Five seen on March 30th — 
"the most ever seen together in spring," at Isle of May, "by 
Mr. Agnew;" a gale from the S. the previous night, but wind 



* This I hope to be able to decide next year, should any turn up at this 
station , 



14 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

westerly when seen ; these birds flying north. Other records are 
with E. or S.E. winds, on 19th, 20th and 23rd. In April, two 
records at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May, on 3rd and 25th. 

In autumn, records from Pentland Skerries, Bell Rock and 
Isle of May. Earliest, July 13th, at the first-named station, and 
again on 28th, with fresh N. wind and haze or rain. Scattered 
records in August, mostly at Pentland Skerries, with northerly 
winds; but two records, one with light S. and clear, and the 
other, Aug. 18th, with fresh W. and cloudy, when thirteen 
were counted. In September, a flock at Bell Rock on 1st ; a few 
on 2nd, at Pentland Skerries ; a number on 11th, with Robins, 
at Isle of May. In October, one record at Isle of May, on 10th, 
light E., haze ; and the latest record at Isle of May, one bird on 
7th. The Wagtails on Oct. 10th are described as very light- 
coloured, but from the good description it is easily seen that 
they are immature birds of probably the Pied Wagtail. But it 
is desirable to watch for very light or light-hacked birds at Isle of 
May and elsewhere, and especially at Bell Rock, during the 
spring migration, as such may prove to be the continental White 
Wagtail. 

Anthid^. — In spring, the Rock Pipits resident at the Isle of 
May received considerable additions to their numbers on March 
19th, and Meadow Pipits arrived in small numbers on 21st, 
which is an early date. On April 3rd, both had much increased 
in numbers. *' Moss-cheejDers," i. e., Meadow Pipits, are also 
noted at Bell Rock, on April 27th. 

In autumn the movement was never great. Noted at Bell 
Rock, and, curiously enough, 7iot at Isle of May, nor at any 
other stations. Duration : Aug. 9th — light S. breeze, fog, one 
resting — to Nov. 1st, when one was noted along with the vast 
rush of other migrants (see SaxicolincB) . Indication of the rush 
very faint about Sept. 1st, when a flock rested on the Rock; a 
few more seen on 16th, 19th and 22nd ; winds light S.W. on 1st, 
light N.W. on 22nd, and E.N.E. on 19th ; calm on 16th. On 
Oct. 9th also a flock flying with " Bullfinches." [These latter 
may, Mr. Jack thinks, be named wrong, and may be either 
Crossbills or Hawfinches.] 

Land Notes. — A Waxwing, Amjjelis garrula, — a male in full 
plumage, — was found at North Unst, of which Mr. Garrick 
writes me that it had been ke^t too long and could not un- 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 15 

fortunately be preserved. Two very fine old Waxwings were 
shot at Kinneil Woods, near Borrowstonness (or Bo'ness), by 
Mr. D. Nichol, gamekeeper to Mr. Eussell, Dundas Castle, on 
Jan. 18th, 1883. 

Laniad^. — A male killed at Helensburgh (Dumbartonshh*e), 
shot by Major Allan Colquhoun, Feb. 3rd, 1883. 

HiEUNDiNiD^. — In spring, i. e., till end of June, records reach 
me from Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland Skerries and Isle 
of May. (It is often difficult to draw the line in the case 
of Hirundinidce, between spring migration, local flights, and 
autumn migration. This year, however, they are tolerably 
distinct, as I have no records during the whole of July). Earliest 
spring record is at Sumburgh Head, on April 21st, a single bird, 
and the next is at Isle of May on April 26th ; winds in both 
cases S.E., and two more on 28th. No more till May 14th, with 
S.W. wind at Isle of May. Occasional light returns all through 
May, at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May; winds easterly 
at former, and westerly at latter. Note. — None breed at Isle of 
May. No rush distinguishable. In June the dates are 5th (at 
Sumburgh Head and at Pentland Skerries), Sand Martin ; 10th, 
four seen at Sumburgh Head, and 13th, 14th, 17th and 26th, at 
different stations ; winds from all directions between S.W. at 
Sumburgh Head by N. to E, Swallows arrived at Cromarty on 
May 13th ; first seen. 

In autumn, the movement, as far as I can judge, extended 
through August and September, and lingered into October, the 
latest record coming from Sumburgh Head on Oct. 6th. A 
rush is indicated by the returns on Sept. 8th and 15th at Isle 
of May, when " considerable numbers," *' large numbers," and 
on the 19th, " some," are the data. Wind light W. on 8th, and 
easterly the [other days. The directions of flight of Swallows 
recorded in August vary considerably. Thus, at Pentland Skerries, 
one Martin flying E.; strong S.E. and rain, on Aug. 8th; one 
Swallow, "flying around," on 9th; fresh E., showers, and 
"flying W." ; on 20th light S.E. and haze. At Isle of May, five 
Swallows flying S., light S.E., haze on 22nd, and flock "flying 
S." on 30th; light S.E., haze. Swallows left Cromarty on 
Sept. 8th ; last seen. 

Land Notes. — Swallows seen by me in some numbers at 
Kirkmichael House, Dumfries, on evening of April 13th, flying 



16 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

over the artificial ponds. Also seen at Morningside by A. B. 
Herbert, on 15tb. I have the following notes from Dr. John 
Grieve, at Bridge of Allan, which locality is famed in spring for 
the shelter afforded from east winds. Dr. Grieve's notes refer 
however to autumn notes. In 1880 Swifts left the Bridge of 
Allan on Aug. 10th. In 1879 Swifts left between 8th and 17th, 
and in 1882 on the 8th. "Previous to leaving they always 
chase one another round the houses until two days before 
leaving ; then they appear to keep to higher air." In 1881 two 
were seen on May 3rd, being the first arrivals. In 1880 about 
200 " Mai-tins and a few Swallows collected on two houses in 
Bridge of Allan on Aug. 22nd, and similar congregations took 
place in smaller numbers on 27th to 31st, and on Sept. 8th. On 
Oct. 4th, frost ; and in afternoon some twenty-five seen. On 
Oct. 6th, five to one hundred seen hawking over the wood behind 
Bridge of Allan. On 8th, six seen. On 8th, hard frost and fog ; 
four seen flying about in silence ; next morning, hard frost. On 
20th, 15° frost; on 21st, 6° ; 22nd, 10°; and 23rd, 2°. But on 23rd 
two Swallows seen. These were the last that year." In 1882 
great numbers of Swallows and Martins were seen flying east- 
ward, outside the cliffs of Beachy Head on Oct. 4th, and a good 
many remained along the undercliff of the Isle of Wight at 
Ventnor. 

The above notes by Dr. Grieve are quite to the point, and if 
we could continue to receive land notes such as these from all 
parts of the country they would be sure to prove most useful, 
even if confined to one or two species of regular migrants. 

Fringillid^. — Both in spring and autumn, one of the 
features of the 1883 migration is the number of records of 
Finches (also of Thrushes, and to a less extent of Buntings), 
whilst Thrushes — of sorts — and Finches, seem usually to travel 
together ; there seems, if we may so call it, more uniform action 
in the formers' movements in 1883. The Thrushes' movements 
are more compressed : those of Finches more extended in time ; 
or, in other words, the spring and autumn migrations of the 
TurclidcB are more strongly defined than those of the Finches. 
Thrushes (including Blackbirds and all species) are totally 
absent during June and July (not including residents of course), 
and almost absent during August and September, and again the 
same in December and January (1884). But, though the migra- 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 17 

tions of the Finches are easily defined, still they do spread out 
more over the whole year, and, with the exception of July, 
occupy considerable space in the schedule. These remarks are 
intended to apply only to 1883, not as a general statement. 

In spring, records come from five of the stations giving 
returns, viz., Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, 
Bell Eock and Isle of May. The earliest, two Green Linnets 
at Isle of May, on Feb. 17th (the only record of that month). 
Again, at Isle of May, Tree Sparrows and Chaffinches on March 
2nd — single birds. Latest, June 22nd, at Pentland Skerries 
— four *' Linnets." These are probably Twites or else Grey 
Linnets. During April, between 1st and 5th, there was a rush 
of Grey Linnets with light W. wind, clear, along with other 
species ; and during the month there are lighter movements 
recorded of the following species : — Chaffinch, Sumburgh Head ; 
Common Sparrow, Pentland Skerries ; Green Linnets, Isle of 
May; Bramblings, Tree Sparrows and Bullfinches. Wind at 
Sumburgh Head light S.E., but elsewhere generally light W. and 
usually clear. In May a small flock of Sparrows at Auskerry, 
from the 14th to 31st; one Brambling, one Chaffinch, one Green 
Linnet, between 10th and 15th, with fresh N.N.E. wind. 

In autumn, at North Unst, one flock, Oct. 17th; S.E., light, 
haze ; Sumburgh Head, considerable migration in October — 
November with other species (see Thrush). Pentland Skerries, 
small indication as compared with more southerly stations ; 
Chanonry, light ; Tarbat Ness, full migration ; BeU Eock, rush ; 
and Isle of May, rushes. Earliest, Aug. 5th ; numbers of small 
flocks ; wind light W. at Isle of May. Latest, Dec. 26th, at Isle 
of May. Pushes : — General rush of migrants, Sept. 22nd, at 
Isle of May, in which Bramblings participated; Oct. 13th, at 
Tarbat Ness, Bramblings, wind due S. ; also rush of same, 15th 
and 16th, same place; and rush also of Tree Sparrows, 
Chaffinches, " Green Buntings " (? Green Linnets), and Lin- 
nets, at Chanonry; strong breeze and showers; movements 
all through October of these same species ; also Linnets 
at Pentland Skerries; Siskins ("Sisting" of schedule), one 
flock, old and young, on 7th, at Tarbat Ness, and again five 
on Oct. 29th. Light S., haze, on 30th. at Pentland Skerries — 
date of principal rush, — but westerly gales at Tarbat Ness on 
29th. At the time of rush between Oct. 13th and 16th, at Tarbat 



18 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Ness, the wind began at due S. ; 14th, strong S., and to noon 
on loth ; then to W. and west gale at night of 15th. West 
gales continued to end of month. By Nov. 1st to 3rd a vast 
rush at Bell Eock and Isle of May, and also at Sumburgh 
Head. By the 5th, rush all over and almost all left. Pentland 
Skerries did not appear to participate largely in this rush. 
The species are chiefly Chaffinches and Bramblings, also Green 
Linnets, Gray Linnets and Sparrows. Prevailing winds westerly. 
In December, fewer records at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May. 
Winds prevailing N.W. and W. At Dunnet Head *' Linnets " 
are reported present all the year round. In January, 1884, 
one or two light records of Brambling and Greenfinch at Isle 
of May. Latest, Jan. 12th. Note. — Mr. Gilmour, Pentland 
Skerries, writes he was not sure of the Chaffinches at that 
station, when he took up the keeping of the records, and that 
they may prove to be Snow Buntings, which is very likely. Mr. 
D. M. Scott, at Sumburgh Head, writes under date of Oct. 11th, 
" a number of small birds killed on balcony : picked up four 
Green Linnets and two Chaffinches. I discovered to-day what 
becomes of them after being killed. In a hole of a stone dyke 
I found a large number of wings and legs of small birds, taken 
there by Weasels " (i.e., Mustela erminea, which was introduced 
to Shetland. The Common Weasel, Mustela vulgaris, is not an 
inhabitant of Shetland). If Mr. Scott would in future collect all 
the wings and send them to me by post, they would be useful in 
identifying species ; or, at any time, if a rare bird occurs, the 
name of which is not known, the wings, might be sent (see 
addition to letter of instructions, issued 1884). Mr. Agnew 
notes that he had never before witnessed such a large migration 
at Isle of May, with a due S. wind, as that of Oct. 13th, 14th, and 
15th. Chaffinch was heard singing on Feb. 28th at Dunipace. 

CoRviDiE. — I have records every month in the year but June. 
In January, 1884, one Hooded'Crow flying north, W.S.W. gale, 
clear. In February, 1883, records of Grey Crows, Jackdaws (at 
Isle of May, ''very rare " on 13th and 14th, light S. and S.W., 
shifting to N). Books (at Isle of May, on. 19th, a single bird). 
In March, Books (at Pentland Skerries a flock all day, fresh S.E., 
cloudy), and one Hooded Crow (on 19th at Isle of May, light, 
S.E.). In April, at Sumburgh Head, Bell Eock, and Isle of 
May, Books and Carrion Crows and one Hooded Crow ; prevailing 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 19 

winds S.E., clear. One Black Crow flying north at Noss Head, 
with light N.W. and clear. In May two records only at Sum- 
burgh Head on 3rd, and at Pentland Skerries, on 11th, of Rooks 
(two flying W., fresh W. breeze and clear). 

In autumn, in July, all the records are of Rooks, all at one 
station, viz., Pentland Skerries, and in each case birds remaining 
on island all day; winds moderate N., cloudy or clear, but 
strong S. on 27th. In August, Rooks again at Pentland Skerries, 
on island ; single birds. The above are probably merely local 
predatory excursions from the mainland of Scotland. In Sept. 
eighteen Ravens seen at Sumburgh Head, flying S., light N.E. 
and clear. In October many more records. At Sumburgh 
Head twelve to twenty Hooded Crows continually fighting with, 
four large Hawks, one of which was so exhausted as nearly to 
allow Mr. D. M. Scott to catch it on the ground. Many single 
or other light records. The most seen, thirty Jackdaws (the 
largest flock Mr. Agnew has ever seen on Isle of May), on Oct. 
15th, S. to W. winds ; also twenty-six Carrion Crows and a few 
*' Hoodies " on 31st at Isle of May. Of these sixteen came from 
the north at 3 p.m., light S. and haze. In November Carrion 
and Hooded Crows attended the rush of migrants on 1st, coming 
from the north. On the 3rd the Isle of May was literally swarm- 
ing with birds, and on the 9th Jackdaws, two in number, re- 
appeared ; light W., clear. In December, at Sumburgh Head, 
two "large Black Crows" (Carrion Crows ?), or, as the natives 
call them, " Scotch Crows " ; strong breeze and hail showers. A 
very regular local migration of Crows or Rooks takes place day 
after day past Chanonry from and to Nairn, feeding in the 
morning and back at night. At Sumburgh Head Grey Crows 
are seen almost daily. Land Notes. — Mr. R. Gray writes me 
that great numbers of Hooded Crows are at present frequenting 
Tyne Woods on the estate of the Earl of Haddington in East 
Lothian. They came some time ago in a body, and have been 
seen feeding on the mud and sands of the estuary, and betaking 
themselves to the woods at night to roost. These are evidently 
migratory flocks, which have crossed Heligoland and landed on 
our east coast without being actually observed in transit. 

STURNiNiE. — In spring, from Feb. 8th at Pentland Skerries to 
April 23rd at same place. Only four records in that time. 

In autumn, great coutinuous migratiou at Auskerry, July 



20 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

30tli, of old and young ; light W. One flock on August 7tb at 
Pentland Skerries all day ; one flock stayed from March 15th to 
24th at Sumburgh Head, and many large flocks also seen to the 
north of that place at the same time. In October two small 
Starlings, *' one with a crest like a Crested Lark, raised and 
lowered it at will " [Rose-coloured Pastor ? — J. A. H. B.] seen 
on 6th, light N. wind. Eushes took place on Nov. 1st, especially 
at Sumburgh Head and Isle of May (see also under Thrush). 
Latest, Dec. 31st, at Isle of May ; but the Starling is resident 
all the 3^ear round at many of our stations. 

Alaudid.e. — In spring at Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, 
Bell Piock, and Isle of May. Earliest, Feb. 8th, a single bird at 
Bell Eock, and several on 9th at Pentland Skerries (see under 
Thrush at this date). Latest, April 6th, at Sumburgh Head, 
when they were found increasing, but not observed on arrival. A 
rush took place at Isle of May on Feb. 11th, 1 a.m. till daylight, 
light E. and fog, flying south (at least all struck the north side 
of lantern).* Other movements took place, but none of any 
magnitude ; winds S. and W. in Feb., except the 11th, ut sup. ; 
N.AV., S.W. to E. on 20th, in March. 

In autumn, a few records at N. Unst, Isle of May, and Inch- 
keith. Earliest, Sept. 21st, at Isle of May, a small flock, fresh 
E., clear. Latest, Nov. 26th, a single bird at N. Unst rested all 
night. Eushes, 11th to 20th, W., shifting to N. on 11th ; W. 
gale on 19th and 20th. Also rush on 31st and Nov. 1st, along 
with other species, principally, at Bell Eock and Isle of May. 
Again a few in January, 1884, up to 17th, light W. winds and haze ; 
and at Chanonry on 24tli a flock, with strong squalls and sleet. 

EMBERiziDiE. — In spring Snow Buntings began to appear on 
Feb. 9th, — but this may not belong to spring records, — when a 
large flock flew about all day on Pentland Skerries. They 
occurred also at Auskerry, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, 
and Isle of May. Earliest, ^as above. Latest, April 12th, at 
Sumburgh Head, when two were killed. No great rushes 
evident, but largest numbers passed in March, mostly with 
northerly or westerly winds. If any rush occurred it was between 
March 9th and 25th, indicated principally at Pentland Skerries 

* Do the birds strike in light winds and fog upon the side facing the wind, 
or on the sheltered side ? In heavy gales they strike hard ivith the wind, 
but touch and strike also on the Shetland side, 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 21 

and Isle of May. On 23rd, at Isle of May, a flock flying north. 
Common Bunting seen at Isle of May on Feb. 12tli, and again 
on April 6th. Yellow Buntings at same place on March 5th and 
April 7th, in both cases females. 

In autumn, as usual, we have numerous records, especially 
of Snow Buntings, at most stations, viz., N. Unst, Sumburgh 
Head, Pentland Skerries, Tarbat Ness, Dunnet Head, Bell Eock, 
and Isle of May. Earliest at Isle of May on Sept. 21st. A 
rush on 22nd and 27th ; fresh E. to heavy S.W. gale on 26th 
and 27th. Latest records to Jan. 18th, 1884. Bushes in 
September utsup., a few in October, many all through November, 
but principally on 13th — 15th, 16th, and in lesser degree on 1st 
and 2nd. Snow Buntings often appear with gales and snow or 
sleet, but during this month S. and W. winds rather prevailed. 
They arrived before the great W. gales, which began about the 
16th. Of other species we have as follows : Yellow Bunting, 
"Grey Bunting," ''Green Bunting" (? Green Linnet), and 
Girl Bunting (one bird sent in spirits was not a Girl Bunting, 
but a young male Yellow Bunting). All these are recorded from 
Isle of May, but no other station, and are distributed almost 
entirely in October and December ; prevailing winds westerly, 
with stormy weather and gales. 

GucuLiD^. — One spring record from Gromarty station : Arrived 
on April 29th; E., fresh breeze, haze. 

One autumn record only, and the only record I have received 
from any station during autumn migration, viz., one young bird 
at Isle of May on August 23rd, light W., clear. Possibly amongst 
the many records of " Hawks " at other stations some occurrences 
of the young brown-coloured Guckoo may have been included, as 
they are very like small Hawks in their flight. 

Land Notes. — Guckoo heard at Dunipace, Stirlingshire, on 
April 9th, 1883, a very early record. Not heard again till May. 
Guckoo recorded from Busby, at Lee Farm, near Sheddens, on April 
14th. Guckoo heard on Tinwald Downs, Dumfries, on April 23rd. 

Strigid^. — In spring a Tawny Owl at Isle of May on April 
28th, S.E. fresh, haze; and at Auskerry an Owl (which is 
probably the Short- eared Owl) came on the 14th, with stiff S.E. 
and showers, and remained a week. " This Owl visits Auskerry 
annually in May." 

In autumn, in September, one Owl on 28th at Pexatland 



22 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Skerries, strong N.N.E. and showers. In October four single 
records of Large Owl at Pentland Skerries on 31st and 13tli, and 
of Short-eared Owls at Isle of May on 3rd and 13th. None in 
December, and one Owl at Pentland Skerries all day on island 
on 1st ; light N.W. showers. 

Land Notes. — Short-eared Owls were reported unusually 
abundant on Flanders Moss, Stirlingshire, in the autumn ; and 
I saw two as late as the 31st January, 1884, on Latham Moss, in 
the same county, so that some appear to remain all winter. 

Falconid^. — Spring records in March and April only, March 
2nd to April 30th. At Pentland Skerries and Isle of May all 
single or light entries ; wind easterly, except on March 2nd, 
when it was S.W. and clear, and one Kestrel was seen. The 
Merlin is tw4ce noted. "Light Brown Hawks twice at Isle of 
May and Pentland Skerries." % 

In the autumn, at Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, Bell - 
Piock, and Isle of May. All July records, three in number, at 
Pentland Skerries, of '' Sparrowhawk," ''Large Brown Hawk," 
and ** Large Hawk." In August five records, three at Isle of 
May of Sparrowhawk and "Hawks"; one at Pentland Skerries of 
"Falcon Hawk"; and one at Sumburgh Head of one Large 
Brown Hawk. The "Falcon Hawk" is described as "hovering," 
so is more likely a Kestrel Haivk. In September ten records ; 
two at Pentland Skerries, two "Hawks " and one "Game Hawk," 
and at Isle of May one Sparrowhawk caught at gratings, and a 
"Hawk." Hawks are usually . found attending the rush of 
small migrants. In October only one record, a Game Hawk at 
Pentland Skerries ; four in November, all at Pentland Skerries. 
None in December, and five in January, 1884. One bird Mr. 
Agnew " feels almost sure was a Goshawk, and not a Sparrow- 
hawk." The rush, if any, would appear to be in September, but 
its faintness precludes us from any feeling of certainty. A late 
schedule from Sumburgh Heard contains record of an Eagle 
["Silver-crested Eagle"; probably the Sea Eagle] wounded at 
Fitful Head by Mr. Birnie. At 11.15 a.m. on January 29th, 
1884, this bird landed on the high rocks,, half a mile north of 
the Read. Mr. Birnie says it cannot live long, as it was severely 
wounded. Mr. Birnie is employed by the landed proprietors to 
kill all the birds of prey in Shetland. He has killed a large 
number of Black-backed Gulls, Hooded Crows, Ravens, &c. 



east coast of scotland. ^b 

Water Birds. 

Pelecanid^. — In entering records of Gannets or Solan Geese 
I believe the best way is to arrange the data in tabular form. 
Spring records are only returned from Pentland Skerries ; but, 
considering the central jDosition on the tract through the Pentland 
Firth, I think all records from there are of use and value, if we 
desire to arrive at conclusions regarding the movements of this 
species. 

Spring, 
March 26th, Pentland Skerries, three Gannets flying E. ; strong 

N.E., and clear. 
April 6th, Pentland Skerries, one Gannet, 4.45 p.m., flying E.; 

light W., clear. 
May 7th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks of Gannets all day, 

flying E. ; strong N., haze. 
May 16th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks of Gannets all 

day, flying E. ; light N.E., clear. 

May 28th, Pentland Skerries, several Gannets all day flying 
round ; strong S., showers. 

April 12th, Noss Head, four Gannets flying N. ; light N.W., haze. 

June 28th, Noss Head, six Gannets flying S.E.; light S., fog. 

Autumn. 

July 1st to 15th, Auskerry, at 2 o'clock, flying from N. to S. ; 
light W. breeze. 

July 5th, Pentland Skerries, 8.20 p.m., flying E.; mod. E., fog 
and rain. 

July 6th, Pentland Skerries, all day, several flocks flying E.; 

light S., haze. 
July 6th, Pentland Skerries, a few fishing all day round L. ; 

light S., haze. 

July 7th, Pentland Skerries, several flocks fishing all day ; mod. 
S.E., haze. 

July 8th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks all day flying E. ; 
mod. W., clear. 

July 15th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks all day flying E.; 
mod. W., clear. 

July 16th to 20th to 26th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks 

all day flying E. ;* light N.W. to mod. N. 
July 27th, on to Aug., Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks all 

day flying E. ; N. to S.W. ; and all this month, all going E., 

except several flocks on 22nd flying W. 

-'' On 16tli a few young observed. All flying E., except six seen on the 
20th, flying W. 



24 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Sept. 3rd to 15th, Pentland Skerries, fewer, all flying S.W. on 
15th; light S.E, wind. 

Sept. 5th to 30th, Noss Head, daily, flocks of six to fifty flying 
N. all day. 

Oct. 19th, Noss Head, nineteen at 3 p.m. ; strong W., haze and rain. 
Nov. 10th, Sumhurgh Head, eight flying S., 12 noon; fresh N. 
breeze, hail. 

The annual regularity with which the Solan Geese pass and 
repass through the Pentland Firth and various other points of 
observation cannot, we think, fail to develop, by the statistics 
accumulated, some curious facts in migration. We are thus 
careful to record these with some minuteness of detail. A late 
schedule from Sumhurgh Head has — "Two on 16th, Sum- 
burgh Head. Eighteen Gannets flying S.W., 12 noon; strong 
W., showers. 

Ardeid^. — We do not think it will be so easy, in regard to 
Herons, to arrive at laws regulating their flights; but, in case of 
development, will on this occasion tabulate their records, though 
we have not done so before. 

Spying. 
March 29th, Pentland Skerries, one flying N., 3 p.m. : S. gale, rain. 
June 13th, Isle of May, one flying S., 5 p.m., in company with 
Gulls, which is rare. 

June 24th, Isle of May, one flying S., 5 p.m.; light W., clear. 

Autumn. 
Aug. 26th, Isle of May, one flying W. ; light W., clear. 
Sept. 12th, Pentland Skerries, four flying about island (rare) ; 

light S., clear. 
Oct. 15th, Pentland Skerries, one rose off rocks, 4.15 p.m. 
Oct. 23rd, Isle of May, one ; fair W., clear. 
Nov. 1st, Pentland Skerries, one flying S., 7.50 a.m. ; light 

N.W., cloudy. 
Jan. 29th, Sumhurgh Head, six (one shot) ; fair W., clear. 

There was a very large movement of Herons in 1882, princi- 
pally in October and November (see Keport, 1882, p. 18). 

Anatid^. — Yery few records either 'in spring or autumn. 
Spring : none. Autumn : Swans on Aug. 15th, at Tarbat Ness, 
two from the N., flying S.E. at 1 p.m. ; N. strong, and clear. 
The only other records are in October, a large flock flying E. 
past Pentland Skerries at 12.20' p.m., with light W. and showers, 



1^: 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 25 

"very rarely seen here." On 19th, Ducks (sp. ?), three flying 
W. over same station at 10.30 a.m ; strong N.W. wind. On 
13th, Eiders at Isle of May in large flocks, both males and 
females, all day ; strong due S. ; left at night. At Chanonry, 
local movements of Grey Geese and Grey Ducks to and fro in 
stormy weather, or from feeding to nesting ground. At Sumburgh 
Head, twenty-eight wild Geese flying S. ; strong S.W., and snow 
on 25th ; and on 28th sixteen wild Geese, also flying S. ; gale 
from N.W. Land Notes. — At Kirkwall, twenty-five wild Swans 
frequented the Loch of Banks, and are described as being *' very 
tame" ('Scotsman,' 27, iii., 83). A very large flock of Pink- 
footed or Bean Geese, probably the former, seen flying very high 
towards S.E. and crying, at Kippen on March 23rd. Fully 150 
Wild Geese remained on Flanders Moss all spring after this date, 
and were seen last on April 23rd. 

CoLUMBiD^. — In spring, few records at Pentland Skerries 
and Bell Kock. On Feb. 19th, at former station, three Eock 
Doves flying E., 7 a.m. ; S.W., fresh, clear. On March 4th, 
two Rock Doves at same station, seen at 3 p.m. ; light variable, 
and haze. On April 20th, one Wood Pigeon at same station 
flying S.E.; fair S.S.E., fog. On May 12th, one Woodpecker 
flying S.W. past Bell Eock, 1.12 p.m.; strong S.W.; and on 28th, 
a few Eock Doves at Pentland Skerries ; strong S., and fog. 

In autumn only two records ; oue at Pentland Skerries, 
twelve Eock Pigeons, on July 23rd, on island ; light N., haze 
and rain ; and on Sept. 16th, one Wood Pigeon at 2 p.m., at 
Bell Eock, flying S.W. ; light S.W. breeze. 

Land Notes. — A male Columha cBnas (Stock Dove) was shot 
at Garden, in this county (Stirlingshire), on March 15th, 1883. 
This species has been rapidly extending its range of late years 
in Scotland. See my paper on the Stock Dove (Eyl. Phyl. Soc. 
Edinb., 1883, p. 241, Feb. 21st). In 1884 at least four pairs are 
breeding in the Vale of Menteith. 

Eallid^. — Spring records meagre. One heard at Isle of May 
April 28th, marked "rare here." One heard at Pentland Sker- 
ries on May 6th, 5.50 p.m.; mod. S.S.E., clear. One heard 
first time at Cromarty station on May 20th ; strong E., clear. 

No autumn records this season. 

Charadeiad^. — Spring records meagre. April 18th, at Pent- 
land Skerries, three Golden Plovers at 5 p.m. ; S.S.W. May 15th, 

E 



26 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

at Auskerry, large flocks of Plovers all day; light E., and showers. 
May 17th, at Isle of May, one Oystercatcher ; W., very fine. 

Autumn records almost equally meagre. July 13th, at Pent- 
land Skerries, one Golden Plover; fair N., light showers. Aug. 
8th, at Pentland Skerries, one Golden Plover; strong S.E. Aug. 
14th, at Pentland Skerries, one Golden Plover; light S.E., 
showers. Sept. 6th, at Isle of May, six Golden Plovers ; strong 
W., clear. Oct. 26th, at Pentland Skerries, one ''Silver Plover" 
(? Knot) killed at lantern; strong W., showers. 

Of Lapwings, records are almost equally scanty. In spring, 
on Feb. 17th, a flock all day at Pentland Skerries ; light S. 
breeze (see Thrush). In March, along with the rush of other 
migrants on 2nd at Isle of May ; strong W., clear ; and a number 
on 3rd. Lots of sixteen and twenty on the 10th and 20th of 
same month ; light E. and S.E., fog, rain, and haze. 

In autumn five Einged Plovers stayed for some days on Isle 
of May on and after Aug. 28th ; came with light W., and clear — 
the only record given of any Charadriad^e in autumn. At 
Chanonry, numerous records of Lapwings lighting on the point, 
or passing in stormy weather or in strong breezes, in Sept. to 
January, 1884. A late schedule from Sumburgh Head has a 
record of Lapwings on Jan. 24th, with the remark, "I believe 
they have never been seen here at this season of the year before." 

La7id Notes. — Lapwings seen in pairs on March 4th at 
breeding stations in Stirlingshire. 

ScoLOPACiDiE. — Spring. Curlews first heard at Pentland Sker- 
ries on March 2nd, when heard at 2.15 2>.na. ; mod. N.W., fog. 
Last on June 29th (but probably belongs to autumn) at same 
place, when a flock flying S. ; light S., clear. A rush between 
April 7th and 15th, a few flying south between these dates at Isle 
of May, — scarcely an appreciable rush, — and one record in May. 

In autumn, not a great many records of Curlews. Earliest 
July 4th, at Pentland Skerries^ and on 15th and 29th at same 
station ; also in August, and at same station a few records, 
most probably local movements. An apparent slight indication 
of a rush of Curlews in September at three- stations, — Sumburgh 
Head, Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May, — young and old ; and 
up to 23rd, at Isle of May, numbers daily. Fewer in October, 
and occasional records up to January, 1884. 

Of Snipe, a few scattered records in spring, in March and 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 27 

April. March 2nd to 9th, at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May; 
and April 12th and 26th, at same stations, winds mostly westerly ; 
but on March 8th E.N.E., gale and snow. 

In autumn, not abundant either, and scarcely require details. 
Occurred in July, August, October (a large flock at Sumburgh 
Head on 18th ; gale and sleet showers), and December. In 
July, at Pentland Skerries only ; in August, ditto ; in September, 
not at all. In October, at Sumburgh Head and Pentland Skerries 
(and a Jack Snipe at Isle of May). December, at Sumburgh 
Head (a large number all day on 3rd) ; strong breezes, snow- 
showers ; and a Jack Snipe at Pentland Skerries on 24th. 

Woodcock.— In spring, one record on April 7th, at BellKock, 
flying about the rock. 

In autumn, Oct. 13th and 14th, two single birds at Isle of 
May and Pentland Skerries ; and on Nov. 1st and 13th, at Isle of 
May, N. Unst, and Shetland. The one on 1st accompanied the 
rush of other migrants. On Oct. 13th six were shot on Isle of 
May ; wind due S., an unusual wind for migrants to arrive at 
Isle of May. At Chanonry, many local records of " Whaups " 
(Curlews) — probably the same flock of forty or fifty— appearing 
in stormy weather. 

Land Notes, — On the night of March 26th, at Dunipace, 
whilst standing at the front door (night bright and starry, 
and frost), a large flock of birds crossed overhead, flying 
south. The cries were difficult to make out, but belonged either 
to Whimbrels or other species of wader. The subject of the 
sounds of bird-cries at night would form good matter for 
explanation by those who have constant opportunities of hearing 
them. Wind N.E. up to March 27th, when a S.W. gale, shifting 
to S., with heavy rain. About fifty Curlews were seen at 
Caldarvon, west of this county, on March 11th, and three pairs 
on 17th (auct. Jas. Lumsden). 

ScoLOPAciD^ (Waders). — Earliest spring migrants were Sand- 
pipers and Eedshanks at Pentland Skerries on Feb. 9th (time of 
migration of Thrushes, q. v.) ; and on 17th, ditto. On April 27th 
a Purple Sandpiper at Isle of May (No. 57 in spirits). 

Autumn. Earliest July 20th, at Pentland Skerries, Eed- 
shanks ; and a few records of these and Sandpipers to 31st. In 
August a few records of the same, and one Turnstone (identified) 
(No. 60 in spirits). In September great flocks of Sandpipers 



28 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

flew in rays of light at 9 p.m. ; light E.N.E., and fog. In end 
of October and beginning of November Sandpipers and Red- 
shanks participated in the rush of migrants at that time at 
Pentland Skerries especially ; light S.W. Large numbers on 
5th ; strong N.W., and showers ; and numbers up to 21st, all 
day ; strong N.W. In December, rushes on 12th ; N.W. gale, 
snow ; and up to 21st, very likely local movements. 

Sternin.t:. — Records of either migration very scanty. First 
seen in spring was at Pentland Skerries on May 13th, at 3.30 p.m. ; 
light S.W., haze; and again at same place two seen flying north 
on June 20th. On June 3rd, at Sumburgh Head, two; fresh W., 
cloudy. Lesser Terns arrived at Cromarty on May 23rd. 

In autumn, first record Aug. 7th, at Pentland Skerries, when 
those breeding there all left, except one or two, with fresh N.W., 
clear. At Bell Rock, on Sept. 19th, a flock kept flying round the 
rays of light all night ,i. e., 19th — 20th) ; light E.N.E. ; and on 
Sept. 27th one immature bird appeared after a heavy gale from 
W. the previous night. The above, I think, is the first occur- 
rence I have of Terns fl3'ing round and round within the rays of 
light of a lantern. Lesser Terns disappeared from Cromarty on 
Aug. 26th ; S.W., strong, clear. 

Larid.e. — In spring, large numbers arrive about March 1st 
for breeding purposes at Pentland Skerries, and leave about the 
middle of August. On March 21st, at Isle of May, Kittiwakes 
arrived in large numbers at 9 a.m. — their first appearance ; wind 
fresh E.S.E., cloudy and cold; and by April 3rd had steadily 
increased in numbers. At Auskerry, May 18th is given as first 
appearance of ''Sea Maws"; strong N.W., and haze; and a 
Black-headed Gull was seen, with light N.E. and clear, at Pent- 
land Skerries. At same station, record of two Black-backed Gulls 
on June 27th; fresh S.E., and haze completes spring records. 

In autumn, at Pentland Skerries during July the daily move- 
ments of Gulls may be worth reproducing in detail. All the July 
records I have are from this station, and also all the August ones. 

1883, July 12, Pentland Skerries, one "Chaser" flying N.W., 

2.15 p.m. ; light E., haze. 
July 18th, Pentland Skerries, three Black-backed Gulls flying N., 

2.30 p.m. ; mod. N.W. 
July 23rd, Pentland Skerries, one " Chaser " flying W., 10.20 a.m. ; 

light N. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 29 

July 25th, Pentland Skerries, continuous and large flocks of 
Herring Gulls flying round all day ; N., clear. 

July 28tli, Pentland Skerries, three *' Chasers" (one flying E. at 
3 p.m., and one flying S. at 5 p.m.) ; mod. S.W., clear. 

July 29th, Pentland Skerries, one "Dirty Allan" seen. 
Aug. 6th, Pentland Skerries, large flock of young Gulls on rocks 
all day; light S., clear. 

Aug. 7th, Pentland Skerries, large flock of young Gulls on rocks, 
3.30 p.m. ; fresh N.W. 

Aug. 20th, Pentland Skerries, one *' Chaser" flying S.E., 12.50 
p.m. ; strong S.E., haze. 

On 15th, at Dunnet Head, Gulls leave breeding-places in 
cliffs. Our correspondent includes both ''Chasers" and a 
" Dirty Allan," both of which names I held as applicable to 
the commonest species of Skua ; but here they seem to be 
divided, as applying to two different species, probably Kichard- 
son's (common) Skua and the Pomatorhine Skua. 

" Dirty Allans " are again recorded from Isle of May, along 
with a rush of small birds on Sept. 23rd ; and in this case I 
doubt not Mr. Agnew applies the name to Eichardson's Skua. 
This is the only September record. In October only two records 
at N. Unst ; two pairs of Iceland Gulls stayed two days, coming 
on the 4th with fresh N. and clear ; and two pairs more on 21st 
hovering round at 11 a.m. ; fresh N., clear. 

In November and December the greatest movements are 
noticed, which I give in detail : — Nov. 2nd, Pentland Skerries, 
several Kittiwakes flying S.E., noon; fresh S.W. Nov. 10th, 
Isle of May, thousands of Gulls (?) ; W. gale, clear ; first seen at 
4 a.m., wind shifting to north. Nov. 11th, Isle of May, all the 
above gone; light N.W., clear. These may have been Glaucous, 
from description, but this is not clear ; and from subsequent records 
I have preferred to consider them Herring, though Mr. Agnew in- 
cludes the latter later by name, I believe Mr. Agnew knows the 
Glaucous and Iceland Gulls well. Land Note. — There has not 
been a large migration of Glaucous and Iceland Gulls at Kincar- 
dine on Forth for many years. 

Nov. 17th, Isle of May, hundreds of Herring Gulls came from 
S.E. all day; light N.W. " Grey Gulls" mixed with Black- 
backs, the latter one in twenty. 



30 REPOBT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDL. 

Nov. 18th, Isle of May, every Gull gone ; light N.W. 

Nov. 24th, Isle of May, hundreds of Herring Gulls came from 

S.E. all day; fresh W. ; also accompanied by smaller numbers 

of Black-backs. 

Dec. 13th, Pentland Skerries, two Black-backed Gulls on island, 
12.30 p.m. ; N.W. gale. 

Dec. 3rd, Isle of May, thousands of "Gulls," 3 p.m. ; W., clear. 

1884, Jan. 22nd, Isle of May, large light-coloured Gulls with 
black tips to wings ; gale W. last night. 

Xote. — There is evidently considerable confusion existing 
regarding the various species of Sea Gulls ; and this is not to be 
wondered at when the innumerable phases of plumage in even the 
same species, according to maturity or immaturity, is considered. 
What is sadly wanted in such a quest as ours is a series of cheap 
yet fairly well executed plates of birds in all phases of plumage, 
with measurements to scale ; but the almost impossibility of 
issuing such at a sufficiently low price for general distribution 
must, we fear, for ever debar our correspondents from obtaining 
such a means of assistance. M. De La Rue issues marvels of 
cheapness in Christmas Cards ; could he not undertake some- 
thing in this line ? His pictures of birds are admirable, but he 
would have to keep up the standard, or even improve it, to be of 
scientific value to us. 

Procellariid^. — Records scarce in spring and autumn. At 
Auskerry, arrived for first time on July 30th, but as early as 6th 
eggs were laid at Pentland Skerries. Being a bird of nocturnal 
habits, the arrival cannot, we fancy, be easily fixed at all times. 
At Auskerry, on 8th, two pairs had two eggs each (some notes on 
the schedule margin here have been torn off and lost, J. A. H. B.) 
On Sept. 25th one struck at Dunnet Head; S.S.W., fog; and on 
26th six struck and rested from 9 to 11 p.m. ; S.E. fresh, and 
haze. It is seldom so many are recorded at the same time. Are 
these Pentland Skerries birds ? At Noss Head, on Aug. 28th 
and on 30th, one Stormy Petrel each time struck, but not 
killed, with W.N.W. fresh on former date, and light S.E. and 
haze on latter. 

Alcid^. — Spring. First visit at Isle of May on March 21st, 
when "not very many" appeared, with fresh E.S.E. Guillemots 
and Razorbills. Next visit at Isle of May, large numbers on 
April 1st with light W., and in dear weather. Increased on 3rd, 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 31 

and on April 27th arrived again finally, after a few days' absence, 
with fresh S.E. and haze. These and other rock birds breeding 
here all left on Aug, 10th, except a few Kittiwakes and Eider 
Ducks, after a heavy W. gale on 9th (see August, below). Puffins 
were first observed at Isle of May ; however, not before May 4th, 
when a few showed. 

Following this comes what may be considered local flights, in 
search of food, to and from the fishing grounds : — 

May 16th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks flying E.; light 

breeze N.E. 
May 21st, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks flying E.; light 

W., haze. 
June 4th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks flying S.E. ; light 

N.E., haze. 
June 6th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks flying S.E. ; light 

E., haze. 
June 17th to 20th, Pentland Skerries, continuous rush flying S.E. ; 

strong N. to Hght E. and W. 
June 21st, Pentland Skerries, several flocks all day flying S.E. ; 

lights. 
June 25th, Pentland Skerries, large flocks, 7.15 p.m., flying S.E. ; 

fresh S.E., fog and rain. 
June 29th, Pentland Skerries, a few around ; light S., clear. 

We now come to the autumn movement, if we take the same 
dates as for many land birds ; but this is apt to be mixed up with 
the later summer movements of old and young birds, and there- 
fore we will keep July by itself. All the records here relate, as 
before, to Pentland Skerries. An equally exact record from each 
salient or conspicuous station round our coasts could not fail to 
give us exact knowledge as regards the movements of sea-fowl, 
or rather of rock birds. Food-supply is an important factor in 
the local as well as the other migrations. A knowledge of 
fishing-grounds would thereby be achieved ; and a knowledge of 
the two subjects, migration of birds and geography of the distri- 
bution of fishes, would undoubtedly hel^D each other. With these 
remarks we continue our records for July, believing that this 
simple tabular form is most useful in the present case, though 
cumbrous if carried on in every instance. 



32 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Jidi) debatable ground, 

July 5th, Pentland Skerries, a flock 8.20 p.m. ; mod. E., fog and 
showers. 

July 6th, Pentland Skerries, several flocks all day ; light S., haze. 
July 7th, Pentland Skerries, several flocks all day flying E.; mod. 

S.E., haze. 
July 18th, Pentland Skerries, a few flocks all day ; mod. N,W., clear. 

July 25th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks all day; mod. 
N.E., clear. 

July 26th, Pentland Skerries, continuous flocks all day flying E. 
and S.E. ; fresh N., haze. 

The last two entries appear to me to indicate decision in 
commencing the autumn migration. 

Aug. 15th, Dunnet Head, rock birds leave about this time. 

Aug. 10th, Isle of May, all rock birds left, except a few Kitti- 
wakes; heavy w^esterly gale on 9th. 

Oct. 23rd, Pentland Skerries, flocks flying E.; strong W., showers. 

Nov. 2nd, Pentland Skerries, large flocks, noon, flying S.E. from 

S.W. (?). 
Nov. 27th, Isle of May, abundant in sea along with Gulls; 

"Garvies," i. e., Chipea sprattus, abundant (J. A. H. B.). 
Dec. 20th, Isle of May, large numbers ; fresh W., haze. 
Dec. 27th, Isle of May, large numbers ; S.W., haze. ^ 

This completes our data of Guillemots and Kazorbills, to 
which the whole of the above records refer for 1883 ; and I think 
it shows pretty plainly the life-history of these birds, at least in 
some important particulars. A wider appreciation can be arrived 
at if similar tabular returns come in from other salient points of 
observation, such as Isle of May, Bell Eock, and one or two 
stations on the east coast ; and Cape Wrath, Butt of Lewis, 
Monach Isles, and Barra Head on the w^est coast ; and also for 
summer migrations, especially such stations as Island Ghlais, 
Skerryvore, and Dhuheartach, ^nd others on the inner line of 
stations of the west coast. 

These data are minutely detailed here this year, because I 
have felt more at liberty to do so, owing to the light returns of most 
of our land birds, thus having more space than usual at command. 

Further remarks, should such occur to us, will appear in the 
" General Observations," which I withhold till the close of the 
West Coast Pteport. 



( 33 ) 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

Printed schedules and letters of instruction were forwarded 
to thirty-seven lighthouses and light-vessels on the East 
Coast of England, and two stations in the Channel Islands, 
and returns have been received from twenty-five, against thirty 
in 1882. 

Independent reports have also been received from Heligoland, 
and certain land stations along the East Coast, namely, Seaton- 
Carew, Kedcar, Flamborough, Spurn, North-East Lincolnshire, 
Wells (on the Norfolk coast), Northrepps, Great Yarmouth, and 
the coast of Essex. Making altogether a total of thirty-five 
reporting stations, against thirty-seven in 1882. 

Our best thanks are due to H. Gatke, T. H. Nelson, C. Donald- 
Thompson, Matthew Bailey, William Eagle Clarke, J. H. Gurney, 
jun., M. Vaughan, of Haileybury College, Arthur Patterson, and 
Colonel Russell, for their hearty co-operation and assistance, as 
well as to the numerous kind and painstaking observers at the 
lighthouses and light-vessels, whose names are given in the list 
of stations. Special thanks are due to Mr. Gurney for having 
inaugurated along the Norfolk coast a parallel system of enquiry, 
which for a first trial has worked well. In all doubtful cases of 
identity, where birds are killed against the lanterns, a wing is 
cut off, and with a label of the date attached these have been 
forwarded in batches to Mr. Gurney for identification, and with 
satisfactory results. We cannot too strongly urge upon our 
observers the advantages of this system, and advise them to 
adopt it ; nothing is easier than to cut off a wing from each 
victim on any given night, wrap them in paper, or tie them 
together, with the dates attached, or numbered on the cover, and 
send them in one parcel by post either to myself or to Mr. Gurney, 
for identification. It is intended that instructions for doing this 
will be given in the next issue of schedules in the spring of this 
year. 

F 



34 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



The East Coast stations included in this report are as follows, 
those making returns being marked with a star (*) : — 



*Longstone l.h. + 
*Inner Farn l.h. . . . 
*Tees L.v. ... 

Coquet Island l.h. 
*Whitby High l.h. 
'''Flamborough Head l.h. 
*Spurn L.H. 

Spurn (Newsand) l.v. 
*Outer Dowsing l.v. 
*Inner Dowsing l.v. 

Dudgeon L.v. 
*Llyn Wells l.v. ... 
^Hunstanton l.h. 
-^'Cromer L.H. 
*Leman and Ower l.v. 
-^'Hasbro' l.h. 
"Hasbro' l.v. 
*Newarp l.v. 
*Winterton l.h. 
*Cockle L.v. 

Orfordness l.h. 

Corton L.v. 
*Shipwash l.v. 
*Languard Point l.h. 

'*' Galloper L.v. 

Kentish Knock l.v. 

Swin Middle l.v. . . . 
* Tongue l.v. 

Nore L.v. 

North Foreland l.h. 

Goodwin l.v. 

*Gu11l.v 

*South Sand Head l.v. 
'•"Eastside l.v. 



f For nature of light, 
Report for 1880. 



Thomas 0. Hall. 

Thomas H. Cutting. 

... Henry Harbord. 

... John Odgers. 
... Charles Hood. 
... James B. Smith. 

WiUiam Stock & J. N. Utting. 
... William King. 

... George Eees. 

... William Westmoreland. 

Richard Comben. 
... John Artis. 
By Mr. Gurney from G. H. Dunsford. 

J. Nicholas & B. Darnell. 

C. Campbell & W. Rees. 

John Watson. 
... Samuel Pender & C. Prefrement. 



... The Principal. 
Owen Boyle. 
The Principal : two batches of wings 
from Mr. Gurney. 



John Webber. 



Francis Harvey & Joseph Jenkins. 
... Joseph Ditcham. 
Edward le Gallais. 

position, and distance from tlie nearest land, see 



1 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 35 

South Foreland L.H. 
Casquets l.h., Alderney 
^'Hanois l.h., Guernsey ... ... ... Charles Williams. 



SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES.* 

Turdus viscivorus, Missel Thrush.— Great Yarmouth, Oct. 20th, 
hundreds arriving ; 23rd, one shot from flock coming in from sea. 
Longstone l.h., 30th, several, and at intervals to Nov. 15th, many 
being killed between these periods against lantern ; on Nov. 4th, 
great rush, coming all night. Great Cotes, N.E. Lincolnshire, 
Nov. 13th, very numerous, fresh arrivals. 

T. musicus, Song Thrush. — Spring, 1883, Farn l.h., Jan. 20th 
to Feb. 1st, Thrushes with Blackbirds and Fieldfares on island, 
also through March and at intervals to May 10th, at which date 
several of each and one King Ouzel were seen. Whitby l.h., 
March 9th, E.N.E., snow squalls, many with Fieldfares and 
other birds apparently moving south. Flamborough, April 27th, 
first Thrush struck, and on May 7th four. In the autumn at 
Farn, Flamborough and Spurn, Sept. 21st, great flight ; and at 
the majority of the east coast stations from Farn Islands to 
Hanois l.h., Guernsey, up to Nov. 8th ; great rushes, with other 
Turdincs, Oct. 13th, and all through first week of November. 
Longstone l.h., Jan. 2nd, 1884, during the snow-storm before 
daylight, many, with Blackbirds and Kedwings, round lantern — 
perhaps a local migration from north to south, f Heligoland, 
from Sept. 21st, S.S.E., to Nov. 12th; greatest rushes on Sept. 
24th, Oct. 13th, 29th, and first week in November. 

T.iliacus, Redwing. — Seaton Carew, Sept. 21st, to Hasbro' l.v., 
Oct. 30th, great many round lantern, and at several stations 
between these dates ; rushes Sept. 21st, Oct. 29th and 30th. 
Heligoland, Oct. 3rd to Nov. 6th ; greatest flights on Oct. 13th 
and Nov. 6th. 

T. pilaris, Fieldfare. — First at Yarmouth, Sept. 8th, flock of 

■•• The sequence and nomenclature are adopted from the ' List of British 
Birds,' compiled by a Committee of the British Ornithologists' Union. 
London : John Van Voorst. 1883. 

t At the Farn l.h., on Feb. 20th, 1884, and foui' following days, numbers 
of Fieldfares, Thrushes, and Blackbirds were seen on the island; wind 

s.s.w, 



36 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

ten to fifteen, 6 a.m., travelling N.E. to S.W., very high,* to 
Hasbro' l.v., Nov. 8th, many round lantern, and Nov. 16th, at 
Farn l.h., four to S.W. At several stations in large numbers 
between these dates, but none south of Yarmouth ; rushes 
occurred on Sept. 21st, Oct. 19th (Yarmouth, along coast to S.), 
28th to 31st, and Nov. 6th to 8th. Inner Dowsing l.v., Oct. 31st, 
seven killed, 7 p.m., N.E., and at Longstone l.h., several on same 
night. Flamborough l.h., Nov. 9th, 1 a.m. to daylight, great 
many ; direction of migration N.E. to S.W. and E. to W. or S.E. 
to N.W. HeHgoland, from Sept. 24th to Nov. 7th ; Oct. 28th, 
great flight overhead, travelling E. to W. ; from night of Oct. 31st 
to Nov. 4th an immense migration day and night, on 6th also 
large numbers still passing. 

T. varius, White's Thrush. — Heligoland, April 15th, one all 
day long (Sunday) in the churchyard, and was not obtained. 

T, merula, Blackbird. — First at Kedcar, Sept. 18th, a few, to 
Whitby L.H., Nov. 11th, several, and at Tees l.v., Nov. 15th, one 
overboard ; between these dates at a majority of the stations, 
chiefly those north of the Humber ; f the first flights young birds, 
young cocks being greatly in excess. On Oct. 19th, at Spurn, 
flight of old cock Blackbirds ; rushes occurred on Sept. 21st, 
Oct. 28th to 31st, and Nov. 2nd to 8th. Heligoland, Oct. 11th, 
some. 

T. torquatuSy King Ouzel. — Spring, Hunstanton l.h., April 
31st, one male. Inner Farn l.h.. May 10th, one. Flamborough 
L.H., May 7th, one very fine old bird struck. Autumn, at several 
stations between the Farn Islands and Yarmouth, from Oct. 13th 
at the former to Nov. 1st at the Spurn, flock at noon, wind N.N.E., 
light, and Nov. 2nd and 4th, Longstone l.h. ; the latter dates all 
night. Cock King Ouzels were tolerably plentiful near the Spurn 
and Kilnsea during the fourth week in October ; rushes on Oct. 
13th and Nov. 1st to 4th. Heligoland, Sept. 30th to Oct. 22nd; 
on the 20th two old males. 

* lu the autumn of 1880 Fieldfares were first seen in Norfolk on Sept. 9th, 
in 1881 on Sept. 14th, and in 1883 on Sept. 8th. The earliest occurrence in 
each case for England. 

t At Great Cotes, on Nov. 13th, sharp frost on previous night ; the hedge- 
rows in the marsh swarmed with Blackbirds, Missel Thrushes, Kedwings, 
and Fieldfares ; the former were young cocks with a few old females. There 
was an average of one Blackbird to eaeh Uneal six feet of hedge. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 37 





Limit of Migration. 


Days. 




Rushes 


'• 


Species. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Fieldfare ... 


Sept. 8th to Nov. 13th 


67 


21st 


28th to 31st 


6th to 8th 


Blackbird ... 


„ 18th to Nov. 15th 


59 


21st 


30th to 31st 


2nd to 8th 


Common Thrush 


„ 21st to Nov. 8th 


49 


21st 


13th 


2nd to 6th 


Redwing 


„ 21st to Oct. 30th 


40 


21st 


29th to 30th 


— 


Ring Ouzel... 


Oct. 13th to Nov. 4th 


23 


— 


13th 


1st to 4th 


Missel Thrush 


„ 20th to Nov. 15th 


27 


— 


20th 


4th 



Heligoland. 

Fieldfare ... Sept. 24th to Nov. 7th 45 24th 28th to 31st to 4th 

Blackbird ... Oct. 11th _ _ _ _ _ 

Common Thrush Sept. 21st to Nov. 12th 53 24th 13th & 29th first week. 

Redwing ... Oct. 3rd to Nov. 6th 35 — 13th 6th 

Rmg Ouzel... Sept. 30th to Oct. 22nd 23 — 13th, 12th, 15th — 

Missel Thrush — — — — — — 

Lines of migration, E. to. W., S.E. to N.W., and exceptionally from N.E. 

to S.W. 

Saxicola odnanthe^ Wheatear. — Spring, Farn l.h., April 2nd 
to 24th; many on 14th. Flamborough, 5th, 1.20 a.m., one 
struck. Tees l.v., May 10th, twenty going from S.E. to N.W. 
Autumn, Farn l.h., from July 20th, 2 p.m., N.E., several, to 
Nov. 7th ; Llyn Wells l.v., one struck (wing sent to Mr. Gurney). 
In considerable numbers in September and October, covering the 
whole coast line ; in the former month associated, as usual, with 
Kedstarts. At the Farn and Longstone lighthouses, Sejot. 2nd 
and 3rd, E., great numbers of both crossing, and on 24th with 
both Redstarts and Snow Buntings. Heligoland, Aug. 6th to 7th, 
a few, S.E. wind, and on to 20th numerous, all young; 21st to 
24th, in astounding numbers ; Sept. lOth, enormous rush, and 
11th and 12th, less. 

Pratincola rubetra, Whinchat. — Heligoland, Aug. 21st, 22nd, 
and 24th, great many young birds. 

P. ruhicola, Stonechat. — Spring, Whitby l.h., Feb. 23rd, one. 
Autumn, same station, Aug. 8th, many to S. Spurn, Oct. 23rd, 
many. Stonechats have frequented the sheep-folds on the turnip- 
fields in Lincolnshire throughout the whole of the late mild 
winter. Heligoland, Oct. 20th, one young bird ; Oct. 11th, S.S.W., 
p. ruhicola (indica) ? " with coloration just like a young autumn 



38 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Whinchat, if not lighter, all the breast buff or isabell, the rump 
also." 

Ruticilla plioenicurus ^ Eedstart. — Spring, Hunstanton l.h., 
April 13th, 4 a.m., S., one male against lantern. Autumn, same 
station, Aug. 30th, one male, 1 a.m., against lantern. Numerous 
between Farn Islands and Yarmouth in September to the 24th, 
associated frequently with Wheatears. Heligoland, Sept. 9th to 
Oct. 1st ; on Sept. 10th enormous numbers, 14th great many, 
and 17th to 21st also great many. 

Ruticilla titys, Black Eedstart. — Spurn, Oct. 23rd, one seen 
(in 1882 at the Spurn, Oct. 29th). Galloper l.v., Oct. 28th, one, 
young male or old female (wing to J. H. G.) ; I have no doubt 
it occurs regularly as an autumn immigrant on our east coast, 
and may be expected about four weeks later than the Eedstart.* 
Heligoland, Oct. 27th, eight or ten. 

Cyanecula suecica, Eed- spotted Bluethroat. — One, coast of 
Northumberland late in Sej)tember ; one, Eedcar, 21st, on Tees 
breakwater ; one about same time at the Spurn, but not obtained ; 
ten, coast of Norfolk, in same month ; and about twenty others 
seen there by a competent authority, Mr. Power. All obtained 
were birds of the year.! The gizzard of one of these Norfolk 
birds which I examined was crammed with the broken remains 
of small beetles having a bright metallic lustre, but the remains 
were much broken and comminuted. 

Erithacus rubecula, Eedbreast. — First at the Shipwash l.v., 
Aug. 13th, large numbers associated with Wrens, to Llyn Wells 
L.V., Nov. 3rd, one killed; the main migration Sept. 10th to Oct. 
14th, covering the entire coast-line; rushes on Sept. 21st and 
30th, Oct. 6th and 7th. Heligoland, Sept. 24th to Nov. 23rd ; 
rushes on Sept. 24th, and Oct. 3rd to 7th. t 

* Messrs. Clarke and Roebuck state, in their ' Handbook of Yorkshire 
Vertebrata,' p. 19, that " Mr. M. B^ijiley, of Flamborough, has frequently 
observed these birds in spring on their arrival on the headland, and has 
known them killed by flying against the light in thick, foggy weather, with 
the wind E.N.E. He has also seen them on their departure in September, 
and has noticed several in October and November."^ 

I Mr. Giitke says "the other form, S. leucocyanea, Brehm, comes very 
rarely so far north as Heligoland, and when it turns up it always does so four 
to six weeks earlier than the suecica in the spring." 

t At the Spurn, in the autumn, I have seen Redbreasts come in directly 
from the sea, passing overhead inland ; ©n a clear bright day the orange-red 
of the breast shows very conspicuously. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 39 

Sylvia cinerea^ Whitethroat. — Hanois l.h. (Guernsey), Nov. 
2nd, E., about lantern all night with Blackcaps. Heligoland, 
Sept. 10th, enormous numbers ; 11th and 12th, less ; Oct. 1st, 
last. 

S. atricapilla, Blackcap. — Hanois l.h., as above. Heligoland, 
Oct. 11th, one young bird shot in garden. S. hortensis, Garden 
Warbler. — Sept. 24th, some. 

Regulus cristatus, Goldcrest. — Spring, Tees l.v., March 29th, 
one stayed all night, then to E. Earn l.h., April 2nd, several 
all day. Hunstanton l.h., 3rd and 4th, S., against lantern. 
Newarp l.v., 14th, three to E. Autumn, Shipwash l.v., Aug. 
13th, large numbers ; and at most stations between Sept. 2nd and 
Nov. 9th ; rushes, Sept. 21st, Oct. 28th to 31st. At the Ship- 
wash L.V., on Oct. 15th, flights passed westward from 10 a.m. to 
3 p.m., and at 6 p.m. fourteen were killed at lantern ; the im- 
migration of Goldcrests has been small compared with the 
millions which crossed in the autumn of 1882, the period of 
migration eighty- six days, against ninety-two in the preceding 
year; line E. to W. Heligoland, Oct. 6th, not many yet ; 7th, 
pretty numerous ; 13th and 22nd, some. The Firecrest, Regulus 
ignicapillus. — Oct. 29th, many ; Nov. 2nd, many ; 8th, some. 

Phylloscopus superciliosus, Yellow-barred Warbler. Heligo- 
land, Sept. 17th, N.E., calm and clear, one. 

P. rufus, Chiffchaff. — Heligoland, Sept. 24th and 30th, some ; 
October, first seven days ; 11th, early, great many and through- 
out day ; 12th and 13th, less. 

P. trocJiilus, Willow Warbler. — Aug. 14th, some ; 18th, 19th, 
20th, pretty numerous, all young ; 21st, 22nd, and 24th, astonish- 
ing numbers ; Sept. 9th, some ; 10th, enormous numbers ; 11th 
and 12th, less ; 24th, less ; Nov. 1st, final rush, marvellous 
numbers. 

Hypolais pallida. — Heligoland, Sept. 20th, ** first specimen 
got here," shot by Ludwig Gatke. 

Accentor modularise Hedgesparrow. — Languard Point l.h., 
March 1st, 12.30 p.m., large flock to E. In the autumn of 1882 
there was an enormous migration across Heligoland and on the 
East Coast of England ; this last autumn only five or six are 
recorded from Heligoland, and none on our east coast. 

Acredula rosea, British Long-tailed Titmouse. — Yarmouth, 
Oct. 25th, about this date several seen, flock of eleven on 



40 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

telegraph wire, and on the 22nd a furze-bush on the " denes " 
covered with them. 

Pariis major and ccerideiis, Great and Blue Titmouse. — Farn 
L.H., March 8th, two Tits. Flamborough, April 3rd, one struck. 
Farn l.h., Oct. 7th, two struck. Galloper l.v., 13th, one Great Tit 
(wing to J. H. G.). Cockle l.v., 14th, both species. Shipwash l.v., 
15th, two Great Titmice (wings to J. H. G.). Spurn, 23rd, Blue 
Titmouse, a great many. Heligoland, Great Titmouse from Oct. 
14th to end of November; Oct. 29th to 31st, a great many; 
Nov. 15th, same; Blue Titmouse from Oct. 14th to Nov. 2nd; 
rush, Oct. 29th and 31st. Parus ater, Continental Coal Tit- 
mouse. — Oct. 22nd, one. 

Troglodytes parvuliis, Wren. — Spring, Flamborough l.h., 
April 3rd, 9.20 p.m., one struck ; May 7th, 11.45 p.m., one. 
"Winterton l.h.. May 14th, several, 12.30 a.m., S., three killed ; 
15th, two. Spm*n l.h., 24th, *' large flock to south." Autumn, 
Shipwash l.v., Aug. 13th, 2 to 6.30 p.m., in large numbers. 
Tees L.V., Sept. 5th, one on board three days. Whitby l.h., 
Oct. 10th, 8 a.m.. Wrens to south. Cockle l.v., Nov. 1st, one. 
Outer Dowsing l.v., 2nd, great rush with others westward. 
Heligoland, Oct. 31st, for several weeks past daily in great 
numbers ; Nov. 2nd, many ; 7th and 8th, very many. 

Motacilla alba, White Wagtail. — Heligoland, Oct. 12th and 
13th, some. 

M. luguhris, Pied Wagtail. — Spring, Whitby l.h., March 
31st, two pairs. Farn l.h., April 2nd, one ; 4th to 14th, many. 
Flamborough, April 11th, a pair. Autumn, Cromer l.h., Aug. 
12th, one Pied Wagtail (wing to J. H. G.). Tees l.v., Sept. 
17th, in flocks, twelve to fifteen. Whitby l.h., Oct. 10th, last 
seen. Hanois l.h. (Guernsey), Oct. 29th, and on Nov. 1st, all 

night. 

M. flava, Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail. — Heligoland, Aug. 
21st, 22nd, and 24th, astonishing numbers ; Sept. 2nd, some ; 
Oct. 13th, some. M. citriola, Sept. 16th, calm and fine, one.. 

Anthus pratensiSy Meadow Pipit. — Heligoland, Sept. 24th, 
gi-eat many ; Oct. 1st, astounding numbers. A. cervinus, Sept. 
16th, calm and fine, one. 

A, trivialis, Tree Pipit. — Heligoland, Aug. 21st, 22nd, and 
24th, astounding numbers ; Sept. 2nd, some ; 9th and 12th, 
many ; 24th, ceased ; again, Oct. 12th and 13th, passing. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 41 

A. richardi, Kichard's Pipit. — Heligoland, Sept. 16th and 
17th ; on 18th, two shot, 8J in. long ; 21st, some ; 24th, some 
Oct. 11th, two. 

A. obscurus, Eock Pipit. — October, last fortnight, common 
on Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk coast. At Heligoland, 
on Oct. Isi, great many {A. obscurus, var. rupestris*) 

Oriolus galbula, Golden Oriole. — Heligoland, May, a male; 
the first in thirty years. 

Lanius excubitor and major, Great Grey and Pallas' s Great 
Grey Shrike. — Heligoland, Oct. 5th, six or eight, and in last week 
in month major, some ; none on English coast. 

L. collurio, Eed-backed Shrike. — Languard l.h., March 16th, 
one. Earn l.h., Sept. 23rd, one shot on island. 

Muscicapa grisola, Spotted Flycatcher. — Spring, Whitby l.h., 
April 7th, great many small Flycatchers against lantern every 
night in the week f (too soon by four or five weeks for M. grisola), 
Farn l.h., April 28th, several. Hunstanton l.h.. May 17th, 
2 a.m., S.W., seven killed. Tees l.v., Dec. 27th, one came on 
board. Heligoland, Sept. 10th, enormous numbers ; 11th and 
12th, some ; 17th, many ; 19th and 20th, less. 

M. atricapilla. Pied Flycatcher. — Yarmouth, Sept. 15th, one 
young bird (J. H. G.). Heligoland, Aug. 14th, some, and on to 
Sept. 20th ; on Aug. 21st, 22nd, and 24th, and again on Sept. 
10th, in enormous numbers. M.parva, Ked-breasted Flycatcher. 
— Sept. 19th, ''one with orange throat." 

Hirundo rustica. Swallow. — Spring, Hunstanton l.h., April 
5th, one to S.W. ; 29th, many. Farn l.h., 20th, two. In May, 
at Whitby, Flamborough, Spurn, and Outer Dowsing l.v. At 
Tees L.V., on 10th, great many, S.E. to N*W. ; and 11th, 12th, 
and 13th, all through day in same direction. Autumn, Cockle 
L.V., July 12th, six to S. ; and from Sept. 25th to Oct. 13th, at 
several stations going south. Last observed at the Spurn by 
myself, Oct. 24th and 25th ; three young birds hawking in the 
sun beneath Kilnsea cliff. Heligoland, Aug. 21st and 22nd, 
S.E., '' astounding numbers " of Swallows, Martins, and Sand 

* This, the Scandinavian form of the Eock Pipit, is not infrequent on the 
Yorkshire and Lincolnshire coast in the autumn. 

f Probably this, as well as other entries in the schedules, may refer to 
various small insect-feeding birds, as the term "Flycatcher" amongst our 
observers is a very general one, 

a 



42 REPORT ON THE mIgRATION OF BIRDS. 

Martins ; Sept. 3rtl, S.S.W. (No. 9), great numbers ; 4th, great 
flock of Swallows late in afternoon ; Nov. 8th, small flights. 

Chelidon iwhica, Martin. — Tees l.v., June 27th, 28th, 29th, 
great many to S.W. ; and at the Outer Dowsing l.v., on 23rd, 
two travelling S.S.E. to W.N.W. Last observed at Seaton 
Snook, Tees, Oct. 2nd. 

Carduelis elegans, Goldfinch. — Tees l.v., Nov. 22nd, one on 
board. Heligoland, Nov. 8th, some. 

Chrysomitris spinus, Siskin. — Yarmouth, Oct. 21st, small 
flights ; several taken by the birdcatchers. Heligoland, Oct. 
27th, a few. 

Ligurinus chloris, Greenfinch. — Spurn, Oct. 23rd and 24th, 
large flocks near the coast associated with Linnets. Great Cotes, 
Nov. 16th, small flights. 

Coccothraustes vulgaris ^ Hawfinch. — Inner Dowsing l.v., Nov. 
2nd, 9 p.m., one struck lantern; two at same station in 1882. 
Heligoland, Oct. 31st, Nov. 1st, many. 

Passer domesticus, House Sparrow. — Spring, Outer Dowsing 
L.V., April 1st, 8 a.m., flock going S.E. by S. to N.W. ; May 15th, 
six, and 18th three to W.N.W.* Autumn, at several stations 
from Oct. 11th to Nov. 19th. Shipwash l.v., Nov. 8th and 17th, 
8 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m., continuous flights to W.S.W. 

P. montanus, Tree Sparrow. — Are recorded at Newarp l.v., 
Oct. 14th, Yarmouth, 14th, and Shipwash l.v., 15th ; and at the 
Goodwin stations in October. t 

Fringilla coelehs^ Chaffinch.— Spring, Newarp l.v., April 13th, 
all day to E. Earn l.h., 29th, several. Autumn, between Sept. 
21st, at Kedcar, to Nov. 29th and 30th, at Longstone l.h., 
immense flights are recorded at the majority of stations along 
the east coast ; great rushes occurred Sept. 21st, Oct. 6th to 
^ 

* All birds, including Crows, Span*ows, Tree Sparrows, Chaffinches, 
Wrens, Swallows, Martins, Yellowhammers, Larks, Titlarks, and some 
ducks, passing this station in March, April, May, and June, were steering in 
ivesterly directions. The Outer Dowsing l.v. is moored on the edge of the 
shoal of that name 53 miles E.S.E. of the Spurn. 

I As a rule more Common and Tree Sparrows pass the Goodwin stations 
than any other on the east coast. These light-vessels, as well as those off the 
mouth of the Thames, are very uniform in their returns, the birds scheduled 
being the most abundant and commonest of our immigrants, and it is seldom 
a rare visitor is chronicled. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 43 

14th, and Nov. 1st and 2nd; line of flight E. to W.* Heligo- 
land, from Sept. 21st, E. by S., to Nov. 1st, in immense num- 
bers ; great rush on Sept. 21st and 22nd, on which latter day 
they passed in astounding numbers ; Oct. 13th, all day passing 
on ; Nov. 7th to 29th, great many. 

Fringilla montif ring ilia, Brambling. — Longstone l.h., Sept. 
21st, E., several. Cockle l.v., Oct. 11th, and Hasbro' l.h., 13th, 
two killed (wings to J. H. G.). Heligoland, Oct. 7th, pretty 
numerous ; 13th, all day with Chaffinches ; and numerous first 
week in November. 

Linota cannahina, Linnet. Spring, Newarp l.v., April 13th, 
all day to E. Autumn, Whitby l.h., Aug, 8th, great many to 
south. t Heligoland, Sept. 30th to Nov. 11th ; rush on Oct. 
13th. 

L, linaria, Mealy Kedpole. — Spurn, a few during the second 
week in February, 1884, and one on 15th near Yarmouth. 

L. rufescens, Lesser Eedpole. — Yarmouth, Oct. 15th, several 
about " denes." 

L, flavirostris, Twite. — Numerous flocks on Lincolnshire coast 
in October. Heligoland, Oct. 22nd, hundreds together, and to 
Nov. 15th ; rush, Oct. 26th to Nov. 7th. L. exilijyes, Nov. 11th, 
one. 

Pyrrhula europ(sa, Bullfinch. — Newarp l.v., March 5th, one 
on board. Outer Dowsing l.v.. May 9th, one came on board, and 
tentoW.S.W. 

Loxia curvirostra. Crossbill. — Heligoland, during first week 
in July, repeated flights from twenty to thirty. 

Emheriza melanoce'pliala, Black-headed Bunting. — Heligoland, 
in May, male and female obtained. 

E. miliaria, Corn Bunting. — Heligoland, Oct. 13th, many; 
Nov. 2nd, many ; 7th, many ; 23rd, some ; ** never seen here 
except in very small flights." 

* Chaffinches are recorded as dying on board some of the light-vessels, 
on which they arrive in an exhausted state. Mr. Patterson, of Yarmouth, 
says, under date Oct. 13th, "Picked up some dead at high-water mark. I 
have found numbers occasionally dead, drowned thus, every year. They fare 
worse in this respect than most small immigrants." 

t Linnets, Twites, and Eedpoles work their way south along the coast ; 
those flocks also which cross the North Sea, after striking land, follow the 
same route to the south. They often collect in immense quantities in 
favourite locaHties, feeding on the seeds of salt-loving plants along the coast. 



44 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



E. citrindlay Yellowhammer. — May 13th, Whitby l.h., great 
many for several days. Heligoland, Nov. 2nd, many; 23rd, 
some. E. cirlus, Cirl Bunting. — May, one, " completing with the 
male obtained many years ago, the only pair." 

E. hortulana, Ortolan Bunting. Great Cotes, May 3rd, N.E., 
very sharp and cold, one seen, apparently an adult female [see 
Cordeaux, Zool., vol. 1883, p. 253.] Heligoland, Aug. 21st, 
22nd, and 24th, "astounding numbers"; Sept. 9th and 12th, 
great many ; 16th and 17th, first old birds. E. rustica, Eustic 
Bunting, Sept. 24th, one shot by Ludwig Gatke. E. pusilla, 
Little Bunting, Sept. 24th, one shot ; 30th, one. 

E. schceniclus, Reed Bunting. — Great Cotes, Nov. 16th, con- 
siderable flight. Heligoland, Sept. 20th, pretty large numbers ; 
Oct. 11th, great many; 13th, some ; and 31st, many. 

Calcarius lapponicuSf Lapland Bunting. — Heligoland, Sept. 
30th, some. 

Plectrophanes nivalis, Snow Bunting. — Spring, Farn l.h., 
March 7th, two. Cockle l.v., 14th, *' Snow-birds " to W. Lan- 
guard L.H., July 8th, a pair on beach, 6.30 p.m., seen by Mr. 
Owen Boyle ; certainly the earliest record for England of this 
species. Autumn, first at Tees l.v., Sept. 18th and 19th, one 
flock each day to S.W., and to Jan. 9th, 1884. Redcar, several 
flights to W. ; a few recorded at stations between the Farn 
Islands and Yarmouth in September, October, and November ; 
and from Dec. 1st to 29th in great numbers. At Great Cotes, 
on Dec. 4th, thousands upon thousands, the stubbles near the 
Humber fairly covered with their enormous flocks ; young with a 
sprinkling of old birds, one to forty. Heligoland, Nov. 6th, 
early, very numerous passage ; 12th and 14th, great many. 

Stiirnus vulgaris, Common Starling. — With few exceptions are 
recorded at all our east coast stations, and often in immense 
numbers, the occurrences being far too numerous to chronicle. 
The bulk crossed in September, October, and November ; less in 
December; the line of flight and rushes corresponding with 
those of the Lark, with which species they are very frequently 
associated. Heligoland, from Oct. 1st to Nov. 12th ; on Oct. 
6th in " astounding flights, thousands upon thousands " ; 12th, 
** considerable numbers of astounding flights, both overhead and 
in distance"; 13th, "still passing, astounding numbers all 
day " ; 26th, the same, very high ; 27th, " night, from 11 p.m., 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 45 

myriads" ; 28th, *' immense," and still great many to Nov. 12th. 
These extracts from Mr. Gatke's notes show the enormous 
migration of this species across Heligoland in the autumn, and 
the corresponding rush on to our east coast. 

Pastor roseus, Eose-coloured Pastor. — Heligoland, July 16th, 
old male shot. 

Pyrrhocorax gracidus, Chough. — HeligO'land, April 15th, seen 
for a whole week, but not obtained. 

Corvus monedula, Jackdaw. — Considerable numbers south of 
Humber throughout the autumn. Heligoland, Oct. 26th, many; 
27th and 29th, great flight. 

Corvus corone, Carrion Crow. — Spring, Farn l.h., March 8th, 
seven to W. Autumn, Yarmouth, Oct. 14th, continuous flocks 
of Carrion and Grey Crows coming in, and again on 27th. At 
the Inner Dowsing l.v., from Oct. 25th to Nov. 13th, great many ; 
also at other stations in October and November. 

Corvus comix f Hooded Crow. — Migrates in company with 
his near cousin, the Carrion Crow, as well as in separate flocks.* 
Spring, Farn l.h.. May 25th, one Grey Crow on island, where it 
ate three young Larks ; on July 27th Mr. Owen Boyle saw five 
on the beach off Languard. Autumn, first at Great Cotes, Oct. 
4th, to Whitby l.h., Dec. 8th, fifty. Enormous numbers crossed 
in October and November between the Farn Islands and Ship- 
wash L.V., off the coast of Essex, the main body arriving on the 
flat coast of Lincolnshire and in Norfolk ; great rushes occurred 
on Oct. 9th, night of 12th, 20th, 27th, and 28th, and on to Nov. 
2nd, and also Nov. 7th to 15th ; under date Nov. 8th, Hasbro' 
L.v. reports " continuous flocks of Black Crows and Grey Crows, 
and Crows with ichite backs and bellies " ; it would be difficult to 
say what is intended by the latter. Heligoland, Oct. 1st, flights, 
thirty to forty, to Nov. 12th. t 



* Probably something like one-half of the entries in the schedules record 
the movements of Crows, Eooks, Daws, Starlings, Larks, and Chaffinches, 
any detailed notice of which is unnecessary, and could serve no practical 
purpose. 

t Under date Oct. 6th, N.E., clear, fresh, Mr. Gatke remarks: — ''Across 
the sea both sides of island (N. and S.), particularly on north side, countless 
numbers of comix, sturnus, and all kinds of small bii'ds, all from E. to W. 
This occurrence happens not rarely ; during this ponderous migration there 
were on the island nearly no birds." 



46 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

CorvusfrugileguSf Rook. — Spring, Newarp l.v., during March 
and April, many flocks of Eooks and Crows are recorded as going 
both to the west and east, as if a cross migration was going on to 
and from the Continent. At the Cockle l.v., March 20th, 24th, 
and 26th, continuous Eooks and Crows to icest. Llyn Wells, 
April 30th, various flocks of Crows to south-icesty and at the same 
station, on Aug. 8rd and 4th, large flocks to north north-east. 
Autumn, with scarcely an exception, at all stations between the 
Spurn and South Foreland, from the last week in September to 
the end of the third week in November ; the rushes correspond 
with those of the preceding. 

Alauda arvensis, Sky Lark. — As in previous years. Larks hare 
crossed in immense numbers to the east coast ; it would be quite 
unnecessary to give each occurrence in detail, almost involving 
the necessity of writing a separate report. They are recorded 
at all stations from the Farn Islands to Gull l.v., off the South 
Foreland, from Sept. 1st to Jan. 3rd, 1884, and often con- 
tinuously night and day ; rushes took place on Sept. 3rd, 4th, 
and 21st, Oct. 6th and 8th, 10th to 14th, 27th to Nov. 2nd— 14th; 
and Dec. 27th and 30th ; and again Jan. 3rd, 1884. Flocks 
which come in at daybreak will continue to arrive till 12 or 
1 p.m., when migration for the time ceases. Numbers are killed 
during the night migration against the lanterns of the light- 
houses and light-vessels.* Heligoland, Oct. 5th to Nov. 8th; 
great rushes, Oct. 12th; 27th, night from 11 p.m., ''milliards 

* The list of birds killed at the Hasbro' l.v., from Oct. 10th to Jan. 3rd 
1884, was 162 Sky Larks, 73 Starlings, 23 Chaffinches, 60 Larks and 
Chaffinches, 28 Stormy Petrels, 1 Fork-tailed Petrel, 3 Fieldfares, 3 Thi-nshes, 
8 Ringed Plovers, 4 Grey Plovers, 2 Goldcrests, 2 Woodcocks, 1 Whimbrel, 
1 Oystercatcher, 1 Kingfisher, 1 Blackbird, 1 Grey Crow, 1 Rook, 1 Lapwing, 
1 tame Pigeon, 1 Cui'lew, 1 Brambling, 1 Redwing (wings sent to Mr. Gumey, 
but without date). Besides these a large tub and bucket-full various. At 
Llyn Wells l.v., under date Oct. ITthf Kestrel, Snow Bunting, Chaffinch, 2 
Robins, Wren, Goldcrest ; on Nov. 4th, 3 Knots, 4 Thrushes, Redwing, 3 
Stormy Petrels ; Nov. 7th, 8 Chaffinches, 7 Thrushes, Knot, Blackbird, 
Wheatear, 2 Dunlins, 2 Snow Buntings, Brambling, Jack Snipe, 4 Fieldfares ; 
another date, 2 Chaffinches, 2 Tree Sparrows, Thrush, 3 Stormy Petrels, 2 
Snow Buntings, Dunlin ; Nov. 2nd, 5 Knots ; Dec. 20th, Knot ; Jan. 2, 
Knot ; 6th, 2 Knots ; 7th, Oystercatcher ; also two more Knots and two 
Dunlins, which had shpped their labels, but which Mr. Giurney thinks 
belong to Nov. 22nd. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 47 

with Starlings; 28th, " immense flight " ; 30th and 31st, in all 
four nights almost continuous flights. 

Otocorys alpestris, Shore Lark. — Yarmouth, between Oct. 
25th and 28th, six obtained from a small flock. Galloper l.v., 
October 11th, one, (wing to J. H. G.). At Heligoland the 
migration of the Shore Lark, commencing on Oct. 1st and 
ending Dec. 16th, was the most remarkable of the season ; Oct. 
1st, N.E., small flights; 11th, some flights; 13th, about one 
hundred ; 22nd, flights of hundreds ; 26th, flights of thousands, 
in the forenoon cliff covered ; 27th — 30th, numerous ; Nov. 7th, 
marvellous numbers; 8th, very numerous ; 11th, many flights ; 
12th, astounding numbers ; 14th, numerous ; 15th, astonishing, 
thousands in flights; 16th, few; Dec. 16th, hundreds. 

Cypselus apus, Swift. — Hunstanton l.h.. May 10th, great 
many. Whitby l.h., 13th, one. Farn l.h., June 25th, three ; 
the movement southward appears to have commenced on or 
about this date. Last at Yarmouth, Sept. 8th, several all day. 
Heligoland, August 21st, 22nd, and 24th, great many. 

Jyiix torqidlla, Wryneck. — Heligoland, Aug. 21st, 22nd, and 
24th, immense numbers with Swallows, Martins, Sand Martins, 
Swifts, Ortolan Buntings, Tree Pipits, Wheatears, Willow Wrens, 
Pied Flycatchers, and Blue-headed Wagtails; all astounding 
numbers. 

Alcedo ispida, Kingfisher. — Yarmouth, first fortnight in 
September, twenty-three brought to one birdstuffer. Hasbro' 
L.V., Oct. 10th, 10.30 p.m., one on deck. Heligoland, Aug. 15th. 

Coracias garrula, Eoller. — Bradwell, Norfolk, Oct. 9th, one 
shot. Muckton, Louth, Lincolnshire, Oct. 27th, one also shot. 

Upupa epops^ Hoopoe. — Longstone l.h., April 29th, one 
killed against kitchen window, 2.15 a.m., rain and squalls from 
S.E. 

Cucidiis canoruSy Cuckoo. — Hunstanton and Whitby light- 
houses. May 12th, one at each. Farn l.h., 15th, one. Long- 
stone L.H., July 24th, young Cuckoo on rocks. Heligoland, Aug. 
19th and 20th, three young. 

Strix flammea, Barn Owl. — One at Cromer, on Oct. 6th., seen 
by Mr. Gurney, and ''a large cream-coloured Owl," at Farn 
L.H., on May 13th, may have belonged to this species. 

Asio otus, Long-eared Owl. — Cromer, Oct. 6th, one. Hasbro' 
L.v. Nov. 4th, one resting on rigging at 7.30. a.m. for teu 



48 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

minutes, and perhaps Whitby, Jan. 3rd, 1884, *' one very large 
Horned Owl seen on cliff top." Heligoland, Oct. 31st and 
Nov. 1st, pretty numerous. 

A. hrachi/otus, Short-eared Owl. — Spring, Farn l.v., April 
25th, 7.45, p.m., *' one very large Owl to E.N.E.; very high." 
Autumn, first at Redcar, Sept. 11th to Dec. 20th. At Llyn 
Wells L.V., two to S.S.W. ; throughout October to Nov. 8th, 
at eleven stations;* rushes Oct. 1st to 4th, 12th to 14th, and 
first week in November. Heligoland, Oct. 14th and 15th, one 
each day ; 22nd, numerous ; 24th, some ; 30th, great many ; 
31st, numerous. Nov. 1st to 4tb, " and at night at the light- 
house, many, also our smaller Owl, tengmahni.'' 

FALCoNiDiE. — Circus, Harrier, Redcar, Sept. 21st, six on Tees 
Breakwater. Buzzards or ''very large Hawks," Spring, Farn 
L.H., March 10th, "one large Hawk, feeding on Blackbird"; 
May 18th, large Haw^k ; June 18th, very large Hawk, driving 
the Terns from their nesting-place; also on 19th. Autumn, 
from Sept. 6th to Jan. 12th, 1884, numerous Buzzards, and 
" very large Hawks " are recorded at ten stations between the 
Farn Islands and Yarmouth ; the majority between Sept. 6th 
and Oct. 20th. There appears to have been a rush of the larger 
Falconidce on Sept. 21st. At the Spurn l.h., on Sept. 21st, two 
Common Buzzards; 14th, 1 a.m.. Honey Buzzard caught against 
lantern, and another on 17th, shot near Kilnsea. Farn l.h., 
23rd, one very large Hawk, "back and wings dark brown, belly 
greyish white, beak slate-colour." Whitby l.h., Jan. 12th, 
8.30. a.m., one very large Hawk, " dark colour, with long, 
square tail, the largest I have ever seen." Accipiter nisus^ 
Sparrowhawk, numerous through September and to Oct. 14th, 
and after this in less numbers to Nov. 20th ; rush, Sept. 21st, 
with other Falconidce. Heligoland, Rough-legged Buzzard, Oct. 
12th and 13th, one each day ; Nov. 2nd, some ; 19th, four to 



* Under date of Nov. 7th, at Happisburgli l.h., an Owl, flying about in 
the glare of the lamps, was seen to pounce on a Starhng and carry it o£f. 
Mr. F. Spurr writes, " this latter, a fine Horned Owl, has taken to visit the 
hghthouse regularly ; he takes his post just beneath'the strong rays of light, 
and from thence pounces on the small birds when they are frightened by 
the glare." He goes on to say that he had seen it perched on the rail of the 
balcony, when its eyes shone like living coals ; just such a hght as is visible 
in the eyes of the night-flying moths when they settle on the pane. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 49 

six. Sea Eagle, Haliaetus albicilla, Sept. 21st, some. Sparrow- 
hawks, from Sept. 21st to Nov. 1st. ; Oct. 4th, first old birds. 
As a rule Sparrowhawks pass late in the afternoon. Peregrine 
Falcon, Oct. 12th, a few. Kestrel and others, Sept. 22nd, 
"more than ever, with Sparrowhawks and Merlins." 

Phalacrocorax carho, Cormorant. — Tees l.v., March 7th, flock 
of twenty-five; 24th, fifty. 

Sula bassaiia, Gannet. — Spring, Farn l.v., Feb. 25th, many 
going N. Longstone l.h., March 22nd to April 15th, daily to N., 
and from this date every day till May 30th, never more than 
nine in a flock ; great numbers of young also seen off Farn 
Islands, Kedcar and Whitby, first three weeks, in October, 
generally moving in northerly directions. Kedcar, Oct. 26th and 
31st and Nov. 2nd and 10th, great numbers to S.E. Hanois 
l.h. (Guernsey), Nov. 24th, all day passing. 

Ardea cinerea, Heron. — Languard l.h., June 25th, a pair very 
high to S.W., and several seen off Farn l.h. in August. 

Botaurus stellaris, Bittern. — Early in January, 1884, a 
Bittern was shot near Thornton College, North Lincolnshire, and 
two others are reported as seen. 

Anser, Geese. — Languard l.h., March 11th, sixteen Grey 
Geese, very high to S.W. Whitby l.h., June 20th, nineteen 
going N., and on July 8th, 5 p.m., a large flock from N. to S.W. 
Redcar, Sept. 21st, twelve Grey Geese to E.; and at some 
stations also in October and November, having probably refer- 
ence to change of feeding-ground. A large flock of Brent Geese, 
Bernicla hrenta, were seen off the Farn Islands on March 23rd, 
at 6 p.m., and in the autumn a few on Sept. 26th, at the Tees l.v. 

Cygnus, Swans. — At Tees l.v., March 25th, one. Outer 
Dowsing L.V., 14th, three from N.W. to E.S.E. Spurn, May 
13th, three to S. ; and on 15th, two in Humber. Llyn Wells 
L.V., Sept. 16th, three to W.S.W. It is possible all these may 
have reference to escapes or strays from private waters. 

Tadorna cornuta, Common Sheldrake. — Tees l.v., Jan. 13th, 
flock of three hundred. ** Never saw so many together before." 
Nov. 28th, flock of about one hundred. 

Mareca penelope, Wigeon. — Eedcar, Aug. 20th, two flocks ; 
Sept. 20th, flock of one hundred Teal at sea. Farn l.h., Dec. 
12th, hundreds of Wild Duck, Anas hoschas, off island. 

Harelda glacialis, Long-tailed Duck. — Farn l.h., March 8th, 

H 



50 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

** flock of fifty to sixty off island." On Oct. 23rd, at Kilnsea, 
near the Spurn, I shot a mature female Hareld from a flooded 
meadow. The stomach contained a mass of small red worms 
and minute stones. 

Somateria mollissima, Eider Duck. — Farn l.h., Nov., *' hun- 
dreds of Eiders, drakes and ducks, with young birds, flying and 
swimming about the island every day this month." In December 
six were shot on Breydon Water, Norfolk. The King Eider, 
Somateria spectahilis, was again, as in the last two years, 
seen at the Farn Islands, in company with the Common Eider, 
in April. 

(Edemia nigra, Common Scoter. — Gull l.v., Aug. 19th to 
Sept. 11th, great numbers going S.W. 

Colnmha palumhus, Eing Dove. — Farn l.h., Sept. 24th, one. 
Stock Dove, C. cenas. — On Oct. 25th, at Kilnsea, near the Spurn, 
I saw one come in direct from the sea and pitch in a field on the 
cliff top. Heligoland, C.pahimhus, Sept. 30th, some; Oct. 4th, 
flights, forty to fifty ; 13th and 15th, passing on ; 31st, many. 

Rallus aquaticus, Water Eail. — Farn l.h., Oct. 30th, S., foggy, 
three at daylight ; Nov. 2nd, one at noon, to land ; Galloper, 
3rd, one (wing to J. H. G.) Hasbro' l.h., Dec. 9th, S.W., one 
struck. 

Crex pi'ateiisis, Corn Crake. — Farn l.h.. May 1st, 3 p.m., 
N.E., one; 23rd, 2 p.m., one. Whitby, 11th, first heard. 
Winterton l.h., Aug. 10th, midnight, one struck. Spurn l.h., 
Sept. 15th, one ; Hunstanton l.h., Oct. 8th, one struck and 
caught alive. M 

CEclicnemiis scoIojmx, Stone Curlew. — Heligoland, Aug. 15th. 

Charadrius 2)luvialis, Golden Plover. — Farn l.h., July 27th, five 
to E., and on Aug. 20th, flock to W. ; numerous on island through 
August and September, moving to and from the mainland. At the 
Spurn on Aug. 29th, a large flock to N.*; and at Wells, Norfolk, 
Aug. 27th, in small parties on tiiud. Heligoland, July. 16th, one 
young bird shot; Aug. 21st to 24th, young birds ; 16th and 17th, 
great flights, all young ; 29th, great flights ; night Oct. 31st to 

'•• The occurrence of a large body of Golden Plovers at the Spurn at this 
date, passing to the north, is somewhat remarkable in connection with the 
large flight of the same species seen there, passing in the same direction, on 
Aug. 22nd, in 1880, and on Sept. 6th in 1881. (YaiTell's Brit. Birds, ed. iv., 
vol. iii., p. 274j. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 51 

Nov. Ist, '/whole atmosphere gloomy darkness, Curlew, Lapwing, 
Tringa, Snipe, Woodcock, but no Golden Plover." Dec. 4th, 
N.E. (No. 8 or 9), snow-storm. Woodcocks and Golden Plover. 

Squatarola helvetica, Grey Plover. — Spurn, June 7th, 11 a.m., 
N.E., flocks along coast. Hasbro' l.v., Nov. 1st, four killed. 
Tees L.V., Dec. 13th, large flock. 

Vanellus vulgaris. Lapwing. — Spring, Cockle l.v., March 8th, 
large flocks to S.W. Autumn, Yarmouth, Oct. 6th, large flocks 
in afternoon from sea ; 30th, Hasbro' l.v., great rush ; Whitby 
L.H., Nov. 15th, 16th and 17th, flights each day, south-westerly 
gale ; also at Hunstanton l.h. on 16th, to S.W., from daylight 
to noon, 

Strepsilas interpres, Turnstone. — Yarmouth, Aug. 11th, young 
birds to S. Farn l.h., 14th, large flocks at noon. Eedcar, 
31st, large flock near Teesmouth, fresh arrivals. 

Hcematopus ostralegus, Oystercatcher. — Llyn Wells l.v., 
Jan. 7th, 1884, one killed (J. H. G.). 

Phalaropus hyperboreuSy Ked-necked Phalarope. — Yarmouth, 
Oct. 24th, one shot. 

Scolopax rusticula. Woodcock. — Flamborough l.h., April 6th, 
struck and killed. Two or three occurred at Teesmouth (Eedcar), 
last week in August, and a few in September. At Seaton Snook 
and Flamborough on Sept. 21st. The ''first flight " was on the 
Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Norfolk coasts, on the night of Oct. 
21st, wind N.E. The "great flight," or rush, on the nights of 
Oct. 28th and 29th, covering the whole of the E. coast, from the 
Farn Islands to Yarmouth, the bulk coming probably into the 
Humber district. A friend wrote me he had shot eighteen on 
the morning of 29th, and might easily have doubled this number 
if he had started early enough. From the 2nd to the 10th 
of November stragglers continued to arrive between the Farn 
Islands and Yarmouth. Heligoland, Sept. 22nd, first ; Oct. 
22nd, one hundred caught or shot ; 28th, astounding passage of 
Larks, Starlings, Peewits, Snipes and Woodcocks ; Oct. 30th, 
twenty to thirty shot ; 31st, ten to twenty shot ; 31st to Nov. 1st, 
thirteen caught, a few stragglers to December 4th.* 



* Mr. Clubley, of Kilnsea, near the Spurn, who during his life has 
probably shot more Cock than anyone living on the east coast, says that a 
S,E. wind always brings large grey or light-coloured Woodcocks, a N. wind 



52 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Gallinago majors Great Snipe. — N. E. Lincolnshire, Oct. 2nd, 
one shot ; Yarmouth, same date, one. 

G. ccelestis, Common Snipe. — Yarmouth, Aug. 11th, several. 
Great Cotes, Sept. 25th, first considerable flight, wind S.E. 
night of 24th, with gale and heavy rain. Hasbro' l h., Nov. 
8th, two struck and killed. Heligoland, Oct. 22nd, great flight ; 
28th, night, immense. 

Limnocryptes gallimda, Jack Snipe. — Farn. l.h., Sept. 2Ist, 
S.E., noon, two. Galloper l.v., Nov. 3rd, one (J. H. G.) Llyn 
Wells L.V., 7th, one (J. H. G.) 

Tringa alpina, Dunlin. — Languard l.h., March 10th, 7.40 
a.m., very large flock, very rapidly to N. T. minuta, Little 
Stint, Bridlington, Aug. 3rd, two seen (W. E. C), and at Yar- 
mouth, second week in September, three.! 

T. suharquata, Curlew Sandpiper. — Essex coast, August 1st, 
Colonel Russell shot three from a flock of Oxbirds ; they were in 
partial moult ; another was seen. 

r. striata, Purple Sandpiper. — Farn l.h.. May 15th, 6 p.m., 
S.S.E., very large flock flying over island; and at the same 
station, on Nov. 28th, very large flocks of Turnstone, Purple 
Sandpiper and Redshank. Yarmouth, Oct. 5th, five seen. 

T. canutus, Knot. — Spurn, June 13th, flock arrived from S. 
The first Knots in the autumn were seen at Yarmouth and 
Redcar on Aug. 11th, and by the end of the month were 
tolerably numerous along the east coast. Llyn Wells l.v., Sept. 
22nd, N.N.E., large flocks to S. all day; at this station also, 
from Oct. 20th to Jan. 6th, 1884, twenty-eight were killed 
against the lantern, t 

small and red-coloured birds — that is, Scandinavian birds. This rule seems 
to hokl good on other parts of our east coast. See also remarks hy Mr. J. 
Harvie- Brown. 

t The first great rush of Tringce aijross Heligoland was Aug. 6th and 7th ; 
14th also, all sorts ; and on 21st and 22nd, same ; again on night of Oct. 31st, 
and morning of Nov. 1st. 

\ The Knot at Blakeney is always called "Knet"; Godwit, a "Pick"; 
Dunlin, "Stmt"; Whimbrel, "Maybird"; Turnstone, "Dotterel"; Einged 
Plover, " Oxbird." On the Essex coast the Whimbrel is a " Maybird " or 
"Titterel," the latter from its cry ; Godwits are "Pream;" Knot, "Marl"; 
Dunlin, "Oxbird"; Kinged Plover, " Stone -runner." At Spurn the Knot is 
a "Plover-knot," but on the Lincolnshire coast simply a "Knot, Local 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 68 

Machetes pugnax, Euff. — Yarmouth, second week in Sep- 
tember, five ruffs and one reeve. 

Calidris arenaria, Sanderling. — Flamborough, Aug. 3rd, old 
male in summer plumage (W. E. C). Yarmouth, 11th, Knots 
and Sanderlings on beach. Spurn, Oct. 23rd, a few. 

Totanus glareola, Wood Sandpiper. — Bridlington, middle of 
August, a young bird was shot on South Sands (W. E. C). 
Spurn, middle of September, three, all immature, taken to 
Mr. P. Lawton, of Easington. 

T. calidris, Kedshank. — Outer Dowsing l.v.. May 9th, one 
"Eed-legged Sandpiper" on deck, then to W. Wells, Norfolk, 
Aug. 28th, numerous ; one hundred or more in a flock. Tees 
L.V., Sept. 23rd, large flock. Earn l.v., Nov. 28th, very large 
flocks with Purple Sandpiper and Turnstone on rocks. T. 
fuscuSj Spotted Kedshank, Breydon, Oct. 20tb, one shot. 

T. canescens, Greenshank. — Wells, Norfolk, Aug. 27th, *' com- 
paratively numerous." Yarmouth, Aug. 9th, four shot, all imma- 
ture. Sept. 2nd, two. 

Limosa lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit. — Kedcar, July 28th, 
and forward to Aug. 27th, in some numbers. 

Numenius phceopus, Whimbrel. — Kedcar, July 18th, N.E. 
light, first passing over, very high. Yarmouth, Aug. 1st, all day. 
Kedcar, 8th, S.W. strong, two large flocks of fifty ; 23rd and 
24th, rush, and at intervals to Sept. 10th. 

N. arquata, Curlew. — Earn l.h., March 11th, 5 to 6 p.m., 
four to five hundred to island from mainland in flocks from five 
to thirty. Whitby l.h., June 20th, great many night and day. 

names, common to both sides of the Humber, are, Turnstone, "Dotterel"; 
Common Dotterel, "Land Dotterel," "Spring Dotterel"; Grey Plover, 
■ " Pigeon," or " Buffel-headed Plover " ; Dunlin, " Stint," or " Tommy Stint "; 
Rmged Plover, "Sand-runner "; Whimbrel, " Curlew-jack" ; Godwit, "Cur- 
lew-whelp." On the Durham coast the Knot is both a " Dunlm " and " Grey 
Plover"; Dunlin, a " Stint"; Sanderling, "White Stint"; Whimbrel, "Cur- 
lew-jack " ; Lapwing, a " Tyafit " ; Godwit, " Goodwin." The local names of 
birds vary so in different districts that they frequently become very puzzling 
to the members of the Committee ; it would greatly assist their labours and 
facilitate enquiry if any fellow-worker would take the trouble to compile a 
glossary of local names of our British birds. The investigation might be 
rendered easy by sending printed forms to the best known ornithologists, in 
their respective districts. The results could not fail to be both useful and 
interesting. 



54 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Winterton l.h., Sept. lOtb, 12.30 a.m., one caught beating 
against lantern, great many during night to W. Farn l.h., 
Nov. 17th, large flock to E. Hasbro' l.v., Jan. 3rd, 1884, one 
killed. Heligoland, Oct. 30th and 31st, great many with Tringa 
and ScolojKix, Limosa and Vanellus ; and night of 31st, great rush. 

Sterninj:, Terns. — Spurn, May 4th, all day to north. At 
the Fame Islands the Arctic Terns, Sterna macruray returned to 
their nesting quarters on May 20th, and left again on Aug. 3rd, 
only a few being seen after that date. Yarmouth, Aug. 7th to 
10th, Black, Common, and Arctic Terns along shore, and through 
the month to 31st ; in shore only when wind is westerly, in 
flocks of ten to fifty, nine-tenths being young ; it is the westerly 
winds which bring in the herring "sj-le," on which the Terns 
feed. The Sandwich Tern, Sterna cantiaca, arrived at the Farn 
Islands between April 15th and 23rd, leaving again on Aug. 3rd. 
At Languard Point, Mr. Owen Boyle saw on June 1st, 4.45 a.m., 
a pair of Eoseate Terns ; 7th, four Sandwich Terns ; 15th, four 
Lesser Terns ; and on 23rd, four Common Terns. At Redcar, on 
Se]3t. 5th, 6th, 7th, and 10th, many flights were heard passing 
over in dark. 

Larin^, Gulls. — Whitby l.h., Feb. 15th, Herring Gulls 
returning to cliffs ; July 18th, first young on wing ; Aug. 14th, 
Gulls, old and young, left the cliff. Farn l.h., April 14th, Lesser 
Black-backed Gulls returning to nesting quarters. Yarmouth, 
Aug. 10th, Gulls, mostly young, along shore feeding on " syle," 
five to thirty in flock. Flamborough, Sept. 12th, great many 
Gulls all day to south. Spurn, Sept. 24th, two hundred Herring 
Gulls to south. Cockle l.v., Oct. 25th, great many large Gulls, 
young and old, E. to W. ; Nov. 17th to 23rd, 9.30 a.m. to 3 p.m.. 
Great Black-backed Gulls from W. to E. Farn l.h., Nov. 8th to 
30th, very large number of Black-headed Gulls fishing round 
island at flood each day ; Dec. 8th, two " Bass " Gulls ; 12th, 
one. "These Gulls are all cream-colour. I am not sure if they 
are the Glaucous, so have given them the local name." At 
Heligoland, young Glaucous Gulls, L. glaucus, were repeatedly 
seen about island in December ; and during the last week in 
January, 1884, hundreds of Black-headed Gulls, L. ridihundus^ 
frequented the plateau of cliff, which Mr. Gatke says is a "very 
exceptional" circumstance there. Xema sabinii, Sabine's Gull, 
an immature example was shot on. Oct. 28th, the second example 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 55 

which has been obtained there ; and on Nov. 10th a second 
young bird was seen by Aeuckens, the birdstufifer. 

Stercorariin^, Skuas. — Eedcar, Aug. 25th, two ; Teesmouth, 
27th, Eichardson's Skua, S. crepidatiis. Farn l.h., Sept. 17th, 
several chasing Gulls. Yarmouth, 20th, many. Heligoland, 
Oct. 27th, S. pomatorhinus, one. 

Procellariid.e, Petrels. — The Stormy Petrel, P. pelagica, 
occurred at Yarmouth, Oct. 2nd, and Spurn on 23rd, shot in 
each case from beach. Hasbro' l.v., 27th, seven caught on deck, 
on 31st ten, and between Oct. 27th and Nov. 4th several were 
taken at various stations at sea off the east coast. One Fork- 
tailed Petrel, P. leucorrhoa, from Happisburgh (Hasbro') l.v. in 
October. A Shearwater was seen at Farn l.h. July 20th, 6 a.m., 
going north ; and at Spurn l.h. on Aug. 5th, 2 a.m., a Manx 
Shearwater, P. anglorum, was killed against the lantern. 
Breydon, Sept. 5th, one shot. In the latter part of the same 
month two Sooty Shearwaters, P. griseus, were obtained in 
Bridlington Bay, and taken to the shop of Mr. Jones, birdstuffer, 
where they were seen and identified by Mr. W. E. Clarke.* 

CoLYMBiD^, Divers. — Tees l.v., March 28th, one Great 
Northern and two Eed-throated Divers off the lightship, in 
company with two Grebes, twelve Sheldrake, and six Brent 
Geese. Eedcar, Sept. 2nd, four or five Eed-throated Divers; 
and on 20th several lots of both. Breydon Water, Oct. 16th, 
adult Eed-throated Diver. At the Farn Islands, last half of 
October and in November, many Great Northern Divers about 
islands ; Jan. 15th, 1884, several Eed-throated Divers about 
island. 

PoDiciPiD^, Grebes. — Bridlington, latter part of August, 
Eed-necked Grebe, P. griseigena^ shot, in full summer plumage. 
Spurn, Nov. 2nd, a few pairs of Little Grebes, Tachyhaptes 
fluviatilis, on ponds ; and on Jan. 6th, 1884, three Great Crested 
Grebes, P. cristatus, on the sea off point. 

Alcidje, Auks. — At Flamborough, in February, 1884, great 
numbers of Eazorbills, Alca torda, all returned to their 
nesting quarters on the cliffs, an unprecedented circumstance 
there; and large numbers of the Common Guillemot were 
reported by the fishermen as seen at sea off the headland. 
At the Farn Islands, March 22nd, 1883, Guillemots had come to 

* ' Zoologist,' 1884, p. 180. 



56 REPORT ON THE MIGRA I ION OF BIRDS. 

their nesting quarters, thousands arriving on April 1st. Puf&ns 
on the 15th. On January 10th and 28th, 1884, on each day a 
Black Guillemot, Uria grylle, was shot from the island. The 
Little Auk, Mergidus alle, shot there on Dec. 29th ; and on Feh. 
4th and 5th, 1884, a great many were seen flying and swimming 
about the islands, more than had ever been seen before. 

The Committee are again indebted to Professor Chr. Fr. 
Liitken, of the Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, for 
a list of the birds killed or taken against the lantern of the 
lighthouse of Stevns, on the projecting part of Zealand, marking 
the limit between the Baltic and Oresund, in the spring and 
autumn of 1883. The list has been drawn up by Mr. Autander, 
a physician living in the neighbourhood of the lighthouse. In 
forwarding the list to Professor Liitken he states there has been 
in this year only a few nights in which any number of birds have 
been killed, in consequence of the sky being generally clear 
during the time of the migration. 

Stevns Fyr (Lighthouse of Stevns ), 1883. 
Night to — 

April 6th. Saxicola oenanthe 2, male and female. 

,, ,, Kegulus cristatus 2 males. 

,, ,, Erithacus rubecula 1 male. 

,, 12th. Turdus viscivorus 2. 

,, ,, T. merula 4. 

,, ,, T. musicus 10. 

,, ,, Alauda arvensis 6. 

,, ,, Regulus cristatus 1. 

,, ,, Saxicola oenanthe 4. 

,, ,, Erithacus rubecula 2. 

,, 13th. Scolopax rusticula 1 male. 

Columba palumbus ... 1. 

Sturuus vulgaris 1 . 

Emberiza citrinella ... 1. 

Fringilla coelebs 1 . 

Saxicola oenanthe 1. 

Troglodytes parvulus... 2. 

,, ,, Alauda arvensis 2. 

,, ,, Motacilla alba 3. 

,, ,, Turdus musicus 8. 

,, ,, Erithacus rubecula 15. 

Aug. 4th. Tringa alpina 1 male. 

,, 26th. Jynx torquilla 1 male. 

Sept. 3rd. Sylvia trochilus 3. 

Luscinia phoenicurus ... 1 male. 

Muscicapa grisola 1 male. 






EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 



57 



Night to 



Sept. 3rd. M. atricapilla 1 female. 

,, Columba aenas 1 female. 

,, Lanius collurio 1 young male. 

5tli. Querquedula cracca ... 1 male. 

, , Motacilla alba 1 young male. 

,, Luscinia phcenicurus . . . 6. 

,, Jynx torquilla 1. 

,, Sterna argentata ...... 1. 

,, Erithacus suecicus 1. 

,, Sylvia schoenobsenus .. . 1. 

,, S. cinerea 2. 

,, S. hortensis 5. 

,, S. trochilus 2. 

,, Motacilla flava 1. 

,, Saxicola cenanthe 2. 

,, S. rubetra 1. 

,, Muscicapa atricapilla... 4. 

,, fLocustella fluviatilis.... 1. 

Sept. 6tli. Podiceps minor 1 young male. 

Oct. 1st. Turdus musicus 2. 

4th. Sylvia atricapilla 1. 

11th. Turdus musicus 8. 

Sturnus vulgaris 1 . 

Alauda arvensis 2. 

Sylvia rufa 2. 

Fringilla montifringilla 6. 

Emberiza schoeniclus... 11. 

Erithacus rnbecula ... 25. 

20th. Fringilla montifringilla 1. 

26th. Coccothraustes vulgaris 1 male. 

Nov. 1st. Emberiza citrinella ... 1 male. 



Since the completion of the Report a schedule has been 
received from the Leman and Ower l.v. moored forty-eight miles 
E.N.E. of Cromer, on the coast of Norfolk. From Feb. 11th to 
May 8th, Skylarks, Black Crows, Rooks, Wild Ducks, Starlings, 
and Goldcrests, are recorded as going in ivesterly directions ; a like 
anomalous direction was maintained during the same period at 
the Outer Dowsing, Newarp, Cockle, and Llyn Wells light-vessels 
by birds passing these stations. On May 8th a great many 
Goldcrests came from the south at 11 a.m., and then went ivest. 
Sept. 11th, great numbers of Goldcrests going from S.E. to W. ; 
and on Oct. 28th with Redbreasts and Wrens from S. to N.W. 
Between Oct. 27th and Nov. 1st two hundred and eight birds 



* Determined at the Museum ; not before found in Denmark. 



58 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

were killed or taken on the vessel, including seven Grey Crows, 
Larks, Redbreasts, Wrens, Goldcrests, Starlings, Sparrows, 
Chaffinches, and two Woodcocks; these birds were travelling 
from S., S.E., and E. to N.W., N.N.W., and W. 

Wings from Galloper l.v. by Mr. Gurney. Oct. 10th, Tree 
Sparrow and Chaffinch; 11th, Shore Lark; 13th, Great Tit; 
27th, Chaffinch ; 28th, Blackstart (young male or old female ?), 
Thrush ; 30th, Meadow Pipit ; Nov. 3rd, Jack Snipe and Water 
Eail. 

On April 9th, 1884, I received from Mr. Gurney the wing of 
a Dabchick (Little Grebe), which struck the lantern of the 
Hasbro' lighthouse at 11 p.m. on the night of March 30th. The 
force was so great that the bird was split from the neck along the 
entire length of body; and on April 8th a Hoopoe was killed 
against the North Hasbro' l.v., and the head, wings, and legs 
sent to Mr. Gurney by Mr. B. V. Darnell, mate of that vessel. 
A Hoopoe was also taken alive on April 10th, on board a 
Grimsby smack when one hundred miles E.N.E. of the Spurn, 
wind blowing strong from E., and had been for some days. 

At Heligoland, on the night from Aug. 6th to 7th, S.E., a 
considerable flight of the Silver Gamma Moth, Plusia gammas 
but nothing to be compared with the perfect snow-storms of this 
moth which passed in the autumn of 1882, all going west. On 
Oct. 11th, S.S.W., there was a considerable flight of Hyhernia 
defoliaria, the Mottled Umber Moth, mixed with Hyhernia auran- 
tiaria, the scarce Umber ; and also during the nights of the last 
week in October repeated flights of these moths. With reference 
to the great flight of Plusia gamma in 1882, a notice of which 
appeared in our last Report, 1882, p. 47, Mr. Charles Williams, 
of the Hanois l.h., Guernsey, sends this note : — ** Seeing Mr. 
Giitke's remarks in your Report about the Gamma Moth, I beg 
to say that they were here in June or July." 

At the Tees l.v., Nov. 18th,'*' a large Seal came quite close to 
vessel, largest I've ever seen." As the Common Seal is well 
known at the mouth of the Tees, this probably may have been 
the Grey Seal, Halichoerus gryphus. 

From Flamborough comes the announcement that, on Feb. 
18th, that rare fish, the Ribbon or Oar-fish, Begalecus hanksii, 
was found alive amongst the rocks on the south side near the 
Head; it measured thirteen feet -three inches in length, sixteen 



I 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 59 

inches in depth, and five and a half inches in thickness ; it was 
supposed to have been brought in by the tremendous easterly 
swell of the last few days. It was purchased by Mr. Whittaker, 
of Scarborough, for thirty pounds. 

Genekal Eemarks. 

The observations taken on the East Coast of England in 1883 
have been such as to generally confirm the conclusions arrived at 
in previous Keport, having special reference to directions of 
flight and lines of migration. 

The winter of 1883-84 has been exceptionally mild, and there 
has been an almost entire absence of severe frosts and lasting 
snow-storms ; the prevailing winds in the autumn W. and S.W. — 
such as we know are specially favourable for the passage of the 
North Sea by great flights of birds, and their direct movement 
inland without alighting to rest or recruit themselves in the east 
coast districts. Our land stations report a great scarcity both of 
land and sea-birds ; this has not, however, been the case at sea 
stations — that is, light-vessels situated off the coast at distances 
varying from five to fifty miles; here the stream of migration, so 
far from showing any abatement, has flown steadily on in a full 
tide, and, judging from the well-filled schedules that have been 
returned, there appears to have been a decided increase in the 
migrants passing these distant stations — due, perhaps, in some 
measure to increased interest and improved observations. Mr. 
Wm. Stock, of the Outer Dowsing l.v., remarks that he had 
never before seen so many birds past that station. The rush 
also over Heligoland during the autumn was enormous. Migra- 
tion is more marked there than on the English coast ; there was 
a great movement of various species passing forward on the 6th 
and 7th of August, and again on the 14th, and more pronounced 
still on the 21st and 22nd. 

The first great rush of birds on the English coast was on 
Sept. 21st, and two following days ; and a similar great move- 
ment or rush is indicated in Mr. Gatke's notes from his island 
outpost, as well as on our more distant light-ships. The pre- 
vailing winds on the North Sea on Sept. 21st were moderate 
north-easterly and easterly off the coasts of Denmark and 
Holland, blowing strong easterly on to our northern coasts north 
of the Humber, with southerly and south-westerly off the south- 



60 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

east coasts, causing cross-currents over the North sea. What- 
ever then was the impulse, atmospheric or otherwise, which 
induced such an immense rush of various birds at this time, it 
was one which acted ahke, and with precisely the same impulse, 
on the Sea Eagle and tiny Goldcrest. 

The second great rush was on the 12th and 13th of October, 
a similar movement being recorded at Heligoland. Then again 
from the 27th to the 31st, and somewhat less through the first 
week in November, the passage across Heligoland, as well as the 
rush on our east coast, was enormous. Speaking of the nights 
from the 27th to 31st inclusive, Mr. Giitke says, " This was the 
first move by the million ; for four nights there has been a 
gigantic feathery tide running." During this time there were 
variable winds over the North Sea, but generally easterly and 
south-easterly on the Continent ; but strong west winds and 
squalls prevailing generally on the 5th and 6th of November. 
With the outburst of some severe weather during the first week 
in December a considerable local movement is indicated along 
our coast from north to south, culminating in the enormous rush 
of Snow Buntings into Lincolnshire about the end of the first 
week in that month. A careful perusal of the Eeport will show 
how generally the rushes across Heligoland correlate with those 
observed on our east coast, although not always confined to the 
same species in both localities. 

A somewhat remarkable and very anomalous movement of 
migrants is recorded in the schedules from some of the light- 
vessels off the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coasts in the spring of 
1883. In February, March, April, and May, birds passing the 
Leman and Ower, Llyn Wells, Outer Dowsing, Newarp, and 
Cockle light-vessels were as a rule coming from easterly and 
passing in westerly directions. Had this movement been noticed 
at one station only we might perhaps have been inclined to doubt 
the accuracy of the return, but tiie fact of five light-vessels having 
no communication with each other reporting the same circum- 
stance proves the correctness of the observations. A summary 
of the spring quarter at these stations shows : — 

Outer Dowsing l.v., March 31st to May 18th, Sparrows, 
Chaffinches, Wrens, Books, Larks, Tree Sparrows, Linnets, 
Titlarks, Bullfinches, from E., S.E., E. by S., and N.E. to W, 
N.W., W.N.W., and W.S.W, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 61 

Llyn Wells l.v., April 30th, various flocks of Crows to S.W. 

Newarp l.v., March 17th to April 15th, Crows on six days to W. 

Leman and Ower l.v., Feb. 18th to May 8th, Skylarks, Star- 
lings, Titlarks, Goldcrests, E. and E.S.E. to N.W. 

Cockle L.V., Feb. 22nd to March 31st, Black Crows, Ducks, 
Jackdaws, Starlings, Larks, Lapwings, " Snow-birds " to W. 
On March 20th, 24th, and 26th, Black Crows or Books con- 
tinuous from 5.50 a.m. to 11 a.m., E. to W. ; and on 31st also 
continuous from morning to night in the same direction. 

All these entries show a great immigration to our coast from 
the east in the spring months, and on precisely the same lines 
and directions as are travelled by these birds in the autumn. 

An interesting feature of the autumn migration is the occur- 
rence of a flight of the Blue-throated Warbler, Cyanecula suecica; 
twelve altogether were obtained, all being birds of the year, and 
nine of these on the coast of Norfolk, besides about twenty 
others seen by competent observers. 

Very few Goldcrests, compared with the enormous flights of 
the previous autumn, have crossed, and the same scarcity is 
observable in the Heligoland return. Curiously enough, the 
Hedgesparrow, Accentor modidaris, which migrated in such im- 
mense numbers in the same autumn, has been almost entirely 
absent. About half a dozen are recorded at Heligoland, none on 
the East Coast of England. 

The intermittent migration of some birds, as the Jay, Shore 
Lark, Goldcrest, Hedge-sparrow, Siskin, and Mealy Redpoll, 
indicated by their extraordinary abundance in some years, and 
partial or entire absence in others, is perhaps suggestive of local 
causes influencing and regulating their movements, such as a 
succession of favourable breeding seasons, scarcity or failure of 
food, sudden meteorological changes ; these acting separately or in 
combination, would be sufficient to compel the migration of large 
bodies of birds from centres or localities, where, under normal 
conditions, they would either have remained or some part only 
migrated. In this manner whole districts may become denuded 
for a time of their feathered inhabitants, and the balance become 
again rectified by a return movement in the spring, or from the 
surplus supply bred in other districts. 

Of the enormous immigration which crosses our east coast in 
the autumn, either to winter in these islands or passing across 



62 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

them, a small proportion only appear to return by the same 
route. Spring returns from lighthouses and light -vessels show 
birds then move on the same lines as were followed in the 
autumn, but in the reverse direction. Yet these return travellers 
do not represent anything like a tithe of the immigrants which, 
week by week and month after month in the autumn, pour in one 
great tide on to the coast. 

What is called the " first flight" of the Woodcock arrived on 
the Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk coasts on the night of 
Oct. 21st. The *' great flight '' or rush, which covered the whole 
of the east coast from the Farn Islands to Yarmouth, was on the 
nights of the 28th and 29th. These two periods correlate with 
the great flights of Woodcocks over Heligoland. 

We are again indebted to Professor Ch. F. Liitken, of Copen- 
hagen, for a list of the birds killed or taken alive against the 
lantern of the Stevns lighthouse, at the entrance of the Oresund, 
in Zealand. The list is specially interesting, as it names so 
many of the Heligoland birds. The occurrence of Locustella 
fluviatilis on Sept. 5th is the first recorded example for Denmark. 

The Roller, Coracias garrida, occurred in October in two 
localities, one in Lincolnshire, the other in Suffolk. Two 
examples of the Sooty Shearwater, Pitffinus griseuSy were 
obtained in Bridlington Bay in the end of September. Altogether 
there has been a very marked absence along our east coast of 
rare and casual visitants ; Heligoland, however, retains its pre- 
eminence for rare wanderers, and Mr. Gatke's list for 1883 
includes Tardus varius, Pratincola ruhicola var. indicuSy Phyl- 
loscopus superciliosus, Hypolais pallida^ Motacilla citriolay Anthus 
cervinuSy A, Richardi, Oriolus galbidaj Lanius major y Muscicapa 
parvay Linota exilipeSy Emheriza melanocephalay E, cirluSy E, 
rusticay E. pusillay Pastor roseuSy and Xema Sabinii, 

Note, — At page 47, under the head " Coracias gari^ulay Roller,'* 
the locality of Bradwell is erroneously given in Norfolk, instead 
of Suffolk (2i miles S.W. of Great Yarmouth). Mr. Gurney 
writes that, on June 6th, 1884, a Roller was shot at Gresham, 
near Cromer, and that before this Norfolk has not produced one 
for about thirty years. 



( 63 ) 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

" And now, their route designed, their leaders chose, 
Their tribes adjusted, clean'd their vigorous wings. 
And many a circle, many a short essay, 
Wheel'd round and round, in congregation full 
The figur'd flight ascends, and riding high 
The aerial billows, mixes with the clouds." 

Thomson. 

Schedules were sent to thirty-four stations, as in previous 
years. We have received filled schedules from seventeen stations. 

Generally the returns are very light, still lighter than last 
year. 

We have notes on about thirty-nine species of land birds from 
this coast ; about twenty species of water birds ; and about 
eight species of littoral species, or wading birds. 

The spring migration, for sake of uniformity with the East 
Coast, I have kept separate. Weather notes are included in the 
General Kemarks. 

List of Stations. 

79 '80 '81 '82 '83 

- * =1'^ 81. Cape Wrath, Sutherland 400 ft. 

* * * * 82. Ehu Stoir, „ 195 „ Wm. Wither 

Outer Hebrides. 

* ^< -^ i< '^ 83. Butt of Lewis 170,, A.Thompson 

=:^ * '^ 84. Stornoway 56 ,, John Grierson 

-1^ >:< - 85. Island Glass 130 „ 

* ^= * -:- 'V 86. Monach Isles j ^^ " [ J-Youngclause 

* * 87. Ushenish 176,, 

* 88. BarraHead 683,, Wm. Irvine 

Mainland, Skye, and Inner Hebrides. 

89. Bona, Skye 222 „ 

- >!< ^:< ■-:< 90. Kyleakin, Bosshire 53 „ D. M'Cnlloch 



64 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



79 



'80 '81 



'82 '83 



* * 



y j|j 



91. 

92. 

'93. 

.94. 
95. 



=;: * ::= ^^ >i= 9G. 

97. 

=:< =:^ ^= =:= 98. 

* * 99. 

* * * 100. 

H< * * * 101. 

::c =:= =:c .;. ^:c 102. 

* * ^ic =;. ^. 103. 

=:= =:= 104. 

105. 

107. 

108. 

>^ -:= 109. 

* * 110. 

* * ^ * 111. 

::c :;. >:: ^i. =:= 112. 

* ::c .:. =:= ^:c 113. 
^< * * * 114. 

* 115. 

116. 
117. 
118. 
119 
120 



Isle Ornsay, Skye 58 ft. 

Ardnamurchan Pt.|Argyl. 180 

Hynish Signal Tower,) 

Tyree [l50 

Sken-yvore, oif Tyree ...J 

Dhuheartach, S. of Koss 
ofMull 145 

Sound of Mull 55 

Corran Ferry, Loch Eil. . . 38 

Lismore Island, Oban ... 103 

Fladda, Easdale 42 

Ehuvaal, Islay 147 

M'Arthur's Head, Islay 128 

Skervuile, Jura 73 

Ehinns of Islay 159 

Lochindaul 50 

Mull of Kintyre 297 

Devaar, Kintyre 120 

Pladda, Arran 130 

Lamlash, Arran 46 

Turnberry, Ayrshire 96 

Corsewall, Wigtonshire 112 

Loch Eyan, ,, 46 

Portpatrick, ,, 37 

Mull of Galloway „ 325 

Little Eoss, Kircudbright 175 



[1880] 



Wm. Crow 



Jas. Ewing 
W. M'Lellan 

Alex. Murray 



W. Main 
John Ewing 
Andrew Lyall 



David Waters 

Eobt. Laidlaw 
Ealph Ewing 
James Begg 



General Remarks by Reporters. 

Mr. James Youngclause, Menach lighthouse, says : — " I am 
sorry to have such a meagre report to send you, but birds have 
been awfully scarce here for some years back, and I have sent 
you records of all that I have seen." 

I am obliged to Mr. William Irvine for the first report I have 
received from Barra Head, which, however, is a station which 
can hardly be expected to give large returns, owing to its position 
and great height above the sea. ^ A daily record here for a few 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 65 

seasons of the movements of Gannets and rock-birds might prove 
of considerable interest, such as daily hours of going to and from 
their feeding-grounds. Such might be found also interesting to 
fisherfolk. 

Mr. James Ewing, of Dhuheartach, says of the spring migra- 
tion and the long-contined east winds : — " A few Larks in March, 
and some Stonechats in the first days of April, are all that we have 
seen of the spring migration. I am convinced that a change of wind 
happening during the migratory season tends more to lead the birds 
astray than strong breezes. It will be interesting to note if there 
is any increase during this autumn, as our light, which was red 
towards Mull, has been changed to a white occulting light." 

By the autumn schedules migration appears to have quite 
ceased here by date of Dec. 7th. 

Mr. W. M'Lellan speaks of the great scarcity of shore-birds, as 
compared with other seasons. Where Curlews were seen daily in 
past years only one was seen this year. Season very open and mild . 

Mr. Alex. Murray, Lismore, writes: — "During the last five 
nights of October we had the largest number of birds that I have 
seen for a long time, and especially Gold-crested Wrens; but since 
that time up to date (8th Jan. 1884) there has been little of note." 

Mr. Andrew Lyall says, ** Very few birds at Khinns of Islay 
this season, and not many striking." But the rush at end of 
October and beginning of November was very marked. 

Mr. David Waters has few night records to chronicle, most of 
his observations being made during the day. 

Mr. James Begg, Port Patrick, writes : — " Flocks of migrants 
very scarce this winter. Great many sea-gulls flying inland and 
coming back to sea daily. The Gannets commence to go south 
and return north in flight past this station from March to 
September in great numbers." 

Mr. William Wither sends a light schedule from Storr Head, 
and speaks of the general scarcity of birds there, but at a locality 
a little more inland birds are plentiful in summer and autumn, 
and Mr. M'lvor, teacher there, has kindly offered to keep land- 
notes another year. 

Although so light at Dhuheartach, a considerable migration 
observed at Skerryvore both in spring and autumn. On Oct. 30th 
(the date of the universal rush of Thrushes, &c.) Mr. William 
Crow saw three Bullfinches on the rock, wind S., fresh, and fog, 

K 



QQ REPORT ON THK MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

and captured one of them with little difficulty. " It appeared 
quite tame, I approaching it within four feet. We placed a spare 
cage we hud, with some linseed, within six feet of it. The hird 
went in at once, and is still alive. It drank fresh water to 
excess after being caught, and was ill all next day. It revived 
afterwards, and is doing well." 

From Turnberry lighthouse there is no return, but Mr. Andrew 
writes, birds were scarcer than usual. But as this is a station 
where there is usually some migration discernible he hopes to 
send returns in future. Like others of our reporters, he naturally 
complains of his difficulty about the names of the birds ; but if 
he will only enter such as he is sure of, and send me the head 
and wings of others, or even the wings alone, and by attaching 
a bit of cardboard and a number to them, and a corresponding 
number in the schedule instead of a name, I could in most cases 
be able to identify them.* 

From Cape Wrath lighthouse comes the following P.O. : — 
" There are no land-birds at this station, with the exception of 
Grouse. The same schedule will apply every year for the sea- 
birds, as they come and go within a week of the same time. 
Eight years' experience." I may just once more try to explain 
that it is exactly this week of difference in time, one year with 
another, which the Committee desire to collect statistics about 
as regards sea-fowl and rock-birds. < M 

TuRDiDiE. — The spring migration on the West Coast seems 
almost to have escaped notice. At Stornoway Thrushes were 
heard on Feb. 19th and 20th, and heard and seen on the 27th, 
but these may have been residents. 

The autumn migration, however, is almost as marked as on 
the East Coast, the time and extent agreeing, though numerically, 
as might be expected, not so great. Extent as follows : — Storno- 
way in the north (light), Island Glass (indication), Monach (do.), 
Barra Head (considerable), and on the mainland and Inner 
Hebrides from Kyleakin (light), Skerry vore (distinct and con- 
siderable), Dhuheartach (light), Sound of Mull (indication), 
M'Arthur's Head (a few), Ehinns of Islay.(a few), Skervuile (a 
few), Lamlash (light), Corsewall (heavy), Loch Eyan (consider- 
able). The above remarks apply principally to Blackbirds and • 

* A general request to this effect will be found in our latest issue of 
Letters of Instruction. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 67 

Song Thrushes, but Fieldfares and "Mountain" Thrushes are 
once or twice mentioned, and one Water Ouzel was caught at 
Skervuile on Sept. 13th. 

The time occupied was as follows : — Earliest record in 
autumn, Sept. 23rd, one Thrush on lantern at Lamlash ; may 
have been local. Next, 1st and 7th and 8th, a few scattered 
records at Barra Head, and between Dhuheartach and Lismore. 
About Oct. 23rd greater numbers, but nothing very remarkable 
till Oct. 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, and Nov. 1st to 3rd or 4th, 
when the rush took place. Movements continued up to end of 
November, but not large numerically, and nothing more that 
could be called a rush. A considerable number were killed at 
Skerryvore at the height of the rush on 28th, 29th and 30th ; 
eight Thrushes on first date, thirty- six on 29th, and thirteen on 
30th. Blackbirds and Thrushes about in equal proportion of 
records, but Thrushes bulking largest numerically. Species 
included are Song Thrush (max.). Blackbirds (large numbers), 
Fieldfares, and one Dipper or Water Ouzel at Skervuile. 
Thrushes of sorts quite absent during a rush of other species at 
Kyleakin, and throughout the season. Five species. 

Saxicolin^. — Wheatears. — In spring, appearance of a rush at 
Skerryvore on April 20th and 21st, fifty seen during the day on 
former date and twelve on latter ; and on April 8th a single bird 
at Dhuheartach. A great many at Skervuile on May 5th, and 
on 15th four seen at Butt of Lewis. 

In autumn, extent, from Stornoway (Oct.), Skerryvore (Aug), 
Dhuheartach (Sept. and Oct.), Lismore (Aug.). Eedstarts. — 
Skervuile (Sept.), Corsewall (Aug.). Earliest, Aug. 24th, at 
Skerryvore. Latest, Oct. 29th, at Dhuheartach. Kush of Bed- 
starts all night at Lismore. The above remarks apply in all 
cases to Wheatears (or so-called " Stonechats"), except where 
otherwise specified. Numbers at Stornoway with Linnets in 
Oct. Considered rare here by reporter. 

Prevailing winds in spring, E. through S.E. and S.S.E. to S., 
and variable on April 8th at Dhuheartach. Two species. 

SiLviiN^. — Kobin. — No spring records. Autumn, Kobin, Ky- 
leakin; Stornoway, isolated examples during December; Lis- 
more, on Nov. 11th, with Wrens and Linnets, and a few single 
records in September and October ; Dhuheartach, few ; Lamlash 
and Corsewall, single records, and Bobins accompanying rush 



68 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

of other species on Aug. 28th and 29th. At Kyleakin, Rohins 
arrived on Nov. 15th and remained all winter. Prevailing winds, 
W. and northerly, very rarely easterly or S.E. One species. 

Phylloscopin/E. — Goldcrest. — No spring records. Autumn, 
slight indications and single records as far north as Dhuheartach ; 
one at midnight on Nov. 7th, light W., haze. Then again at 
Lismore, Oct. 31st, light S. airs, along with Larks; Skervuile, 
few, Nov. 1st, light S. wind ; Lamlash, one ; Corsewall, great 
numhers, or rush, on Aug. 30th, heralded hy one single bird the 
day before. Loch Ryan, four on Oct. 30th. One species. 

Accentor. — Hedgesparrow. — A number seen in the garden at 
Lamlash on Nov. 21st, during stormy weather. One species. 

Parid.e. — Two Titmice struck at Sound of Mull, in light W. 
breeze, not killed, on Oct. 30th. One species. 

Troglodytin^e. — Spring, at Corsewall six struck, none killed, 
on 28th, and five rested at same place on 29th; wind light E. 
and haze both nights. 

In autumn a few records at Dhuheartach, Sound of Mull, 
M'Arthur's Head, Lamlash, Corsewall, and Loch Eyan. Earliest, 
Oct. 3rd ; latest, Nov. 30th ; all single birds, or very light 
returns. Winds, N.W. or N.N.W., except on Nov. 6th, at Lam- 
lash, when wind was N.E. and w^eather fine. One species. 

MoTACiLLiD^. — In sirring, at Kyleakin (earliest March 20th, 
when two seen flying S. ! light E., clear), Skerry vore, Dhu- 
heartach, and Skervuile. Latest at Kyleakin on May 17th, when 
two seen on garden wall. Largest number, four, at Dhuheartach, 
rested on xipril 20th, and flew towards Isle .of Colonsay. Records 
relate always to " Wagtails." 

In autumn, at stations : — Barra Head (several had been there 
for a month on Aug. 27th), Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, M' Arthur's 
Head (only record a flock on Nov. 5th, with N.W. gale and sleet), 
Rhinns of Islay (first and only record on Nov. 4th, a single bird, 
with W. gale), Lamlash (three on Sept. 22nd, and two on Nov. 
12th, the latest record, winds westerly). One '? species. M 

Anthid^. — Single spring record, one Titlark, at Lamlash, " 
rested on lantern on May 2nd. 

In autumn, one at Skerryvore rested on rocks on Aug. 24th, 
light W., haze, and a number at Lamlash on Oct. 6th, and a few 
on 30th, being all the records. One species. f 

Hirundinid^. — Spring records in April; earliest at Loch Ryan 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 69 

on 15th, when thirty arrived, — see autumn under September, — 
May, June ; latest June 15th, two flying S. at Kyleakin, or, if we 
take July, three at Barra Head on 8th ; remained all day, wind 
var. to S.E. by evening). Greatest number of records in May. 
Stations : — Barra Head (Sand Martins), Kyleakin, Skerry vore, 
Lismore, Rhinns of Islay, Lamlash, and Corsewall. The following 
are first arrivals : — Barra Head (Sand Martins), May 1st, two, 
fresh S.E., clear; Lamlash, May 1st; Corsewall, May 2nd; Loch 
Ryan, April 15th. All records above apply to Chimney Swallows, 
save in the two instances of Sand Martins. 

In autumn records light also on the whole coast. Dhu- 
heartach, Lismore, and Loch Ryan. Earliest, and rush, Aug. 19th, 
at Dhuheartach, large flock of old and young flying S., and at 
Lismore, one seen flying S. On Sept. 23rd twenty Swallows left 
Loch Ryan, and on 28th the remaining ten (see spring, supra) ; 
winds westerly and N.W. Three species. 

Fringillid^e. —Spring : — At Butt of Lewis, four Tree Sparrows 
on April 14th, light S.W. wind ; and Sparrows, a large flock 
flying south, light E., haze. Also Sparrows at M' Arthur's Head, 
a number on May 12th. Of Linnets, many after gale of April 
17th, at M'Arthur's Head, a flock at Lismore on June 21st, and 
one bird at Skerryvore on June 25th. A single Goldfinch at 
Lismore, on 21st, with the Linnets. 

In autumn : — Earliest July 28th, a very large flock of Sparrows 
flying S.E., at Butt of Lewis, and none again till Sept. 4th, when 
a number of Linnets remained about till the 9th. Latest record 
Oct. 30th, participated in rush of other species, but on Dec. 15th 
a rush of " small birds" is recorded at several stations. Greatest 
numbers in October, at Stornoway, Skerryvore (a Bullfinch, 
see light-keeper's remarks, antea), Lismore (good many), 
M'Arthur's Head, Lamlash. It is difficult to fix dates of rushes, 
but one great rush took place on Sept. 15th, of Linnets and 
Sparrows at M' Arthur's Head, and indicated at Lamlash by ten 
Linnets flying south. These notes are given of Linnets and 
Grey Linnets, also on Oct. 30th, at Lismore, of Green and Grey 
Linnets, a number at Priory Farm. Numerous instances of 
direction of flight are given, usually "flying S." We have 
received considerably more statistics this year of these important 
directions of flight. We wish our reporters could distinguish 
between Common Linnets, Green Linnets, and Twites or 



70 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Mountain Linnets, always when possible. Linnets have travelled 
in company with Wheatears at Stornoway, and with Thrushes 
and Curlew^s (the latter several times). About seven species. 

Emberizid^. — Snow Bunting. Very scanty records on W. 
coast. At Stornoway one, first seen on Oct. 17th, and twenty 
on 18th. At Lismore twenty on Oct. 22nd. At Khinns of Islay 
one on Nov. 5th, and in December no records, and in January a 
few at Butt of Lewis on 26th, and strong W. and sleet. Pre- 
vailing winds W., strong to gales, but mod. N. at Ehinns of 
Islay on Nov. 5th. One species. 

Alaudid.?^.. — Spring at Skerryvore, earliest Feb. 10th, four 
struck, two killed, strong S.W. ; and in March, at same place, 
on 10th, nine struck and three were killed, fresh N. and showers. 

In autumn, at Dhuheartach, earliest on Sept. 10th, a few, 
and on 29th three; wind N.N.E., clear. Also, furthest north, 
records at Butt of Lewis, Stornoway, and so south by Skerryvore, 
Dhuheartach, Skervuile, and Ehinns of Islay. Latest at 
Stornoway, small numbers on 24th. Greatest movements in 
October at Butt of Lewis, on 11th, large numbers flying south ; 
and at Stornoway 19th, 20th, and 23rd ; on latter date with 
Thrushes and one Eedbreast. Prevailing winds, northerly and 
westerly. One species. 

Sturnin^e. — Starlings feed all through the month of April at 
Butt of Lewis. 

Autumn records scarce. Eegular daily at Ehinns of Islay 
all August. No records anywhere given in September. [We 
trust our reporters bear in mind that we desire movements of 
even our commonest species, and especially directions of flight.] 
In October a few records from Butt of Lewis, two killed, but 
Mr. Thompson considers these part of the residents ; also at 
M'Arthur's Head and Lamlash. If any rush it was on Oct. 
30th, and also 29th, when it was noticed at Island Ghlais* and 
at Ehinns of Islay; but the ifiovement appears to have been 
insignificant. I have a single record in November from Monach 
Island, and one of a flock in December at Loch Eyan. One species. 

CoRviD^. — Jackdaws, Crows, Black Grows, Grey Crows, 
Eavens, and one of Magpie, the latter at Kyleakin, marked '' very 
rare," on Jan. 7th, flying S.E. Stations are Skerryvore, Dhu- 
heartach in spring ; and Ehu Stoir, where Crows (are these Books 

* Ghlais or Glass : both spellings used. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 71 

or Carrion Crows?) feed every day till 81st (I suspect these are 
local Eooks from Cama Loch, but would like to know for certain). 
Only some ten records in all — February, March, April, May, 
June; and August, September, October (Kavens at Kyleakin), 
November (Jackdaws at Sound of Mull, about 200 flying N. very 
high, mod. breeze, sleet, showers). December 27th, two Kavens, 
flying W. ; light E., clear. Six species. 

Cypselid^. — Three May records, all at Dhuheartach. Single 
birds on 22nd and 23rd, flying E., with light S.E., clear; and 
on 24th, one flying E., with W.N.W., and one found dead on 
rocks. One species. 

CucuLLiD^. — Cuckoo records in spring, from — 

Stornoway, first heard on May 2nd ; N.E. breeze. 

Skerryvore, first heard at Land Station, Tyree, on June 1st. 

M' Arthur's Head, first on May 17th; light wind, clear. 

Ehinns of Islay, May 24th ; fresh W., haze. 

Corsewall, May 6th, and Loch Kyan on May 2ud; light N.E., 
clear, and rain. 

Note. — During the first week in May there appears to have 
been an indication of a migration of other species. 

The only autumn record is of one found dead at Khinns of 
Islay on Sept. 1st. One species. 

Strigid^. — Only one record on April 27th at Dhuheartach, 
where one rested on rock at ten a.m. ; light N.W. wind, and 
haze. One species. 

FALCONiDiE. — A Falcon flying N., at Kyleakin, in February ; 
a Hawk at Dhuheartach, flying round on 19th April, where in 
autumn they make daily visits, and even in some seasons all the 
year round. In September one Hawk remained a week here, 
resting on the balcony at night, and feeding on small birds in 
the day. A Falcon seen at Butt of Lewis on Sept. 1st, and a 
Sparrow Hawk at Skerryvore on Sept. 1st, flying E. Two records 
in October and one in December — a Falcon flying W. ; light 
N.W. airs. About three species. 

Pelecanid^. — In uniformity with East coast, records of 
Gannets, chronologically under each station, beginning in the 
north, so far as records permit. The stations recording in 1883 
are Butt of Lewis (82), Khu Stoir (83), Stornoway (84), Barra 
Head (88), Kyleakin (90), Dhuheartach (95), Lismore (98), 
M'Arthur's Head (101), Skervuile (102), and Lamlash (109). 



72 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

(N.B. The Committee would be obliged for chronological 
returns, giving always directions of flight, from any other 
stations, of Gannets and Rock birds) : — 

82. July 25th, began flying north in some numbers to Aug, 

10th ; fresh N. 

83. March 15th, seen daily in great numbers, noted at 83, up to 

March 31st, but no directions of flight given, which we 
would like to have always. 

84. In August, reported as unusually scarce this season, but no 

definite records given nor directions of flight, or if fishing 
or not. 

88. Under date of September 1st, the remark '* a few fishing 
every day." 

90. On June 20th flocks all day, flying east. Was this the only 
day on which Gannets were seen here ? 

95. Dec. 7th, two seen ; only record given ; no direction of flight ; 

wind light N.W., clear. 
98. May 14th, "Solan Geese; fresh, S. breeze, showery. 

June 22nd, " Solan Geese " flying south ; var. light, clear. 

Aug. 16th, two, flying south ; fresh N.W., clear. 

101. April, a few daily seeking food. 

102. March 21st, " Gannets seen ;" E.S.E., light breeze. May 

9th, ''Solan Geese" seen; fresh E. July 16th, "Solans;" 
fresh N.W., clear. July 24th, "Solans;" N.N.W., clear. 
July 25th, " Solans ;" N.N.W., clear. 
109. Feb. 5th, the first seen for some months. One species. 

Ardeid^. — Only one record of Herons at Monach Island, 
where five were seen on the outlying rocks on Nov. 25th, strong 
E. wind ; and the remark " seen daily all the year round at 
Kyleakin." One species. 

Anatid^e; Anserine (Geese). — I think we should en- 
deavour to tabulate also the movements of different species of 
Wild Geese ; but as the records are a little confusing, I find we 
must do so under one, or at mast two headings, the occurrences 
of which are most frequently recorded under these designations. 

Some four species (namely Bean, Pink-footed, Greylag — 
rarest migrant — and White-fronted) may be included in the 
following, reported as "Wild Grey Geese," "Geese," "Grey 
Geese," " Wild Geese," by the various reporters. 

The stations returning these are : — Ehu Stoir (82), Butt of 
Lewis (83), Monach (86), Kyleakin (90), Lismore (98), Lamlash 
(109), and Corsewall (lllj. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 73 

82. *'Wild Geese," April 14th, three; light S., haze and rain. 

83. *' Wild Geese," Sept. 19th, large flock, flying W., past the 

lighthouse, and then turning S.W. ; westerly gale and 
showers. 

86. "Wild Grey Geese," Nov. 10th, twenty, flying round; 
light S.E. 

90. "Geese," Sept. 19th, four, flying S.W. ; light E. 

98. " Grey Geese," Nov. 1st, five, flying S. ; light S., haze. 

109. " Grey Geese," April 27th, forty, flying N., light S., haze. 
April 28th, fifty, flying N. Oct. 7th, three, flying S., N.W., 
fine. Nov. 1st, twenty, flying E., light E., haze. 

111. "Wild Geese," Nov. 13th, twenty, flying E., light E., 
haze. Nov. 14th, thirty, flying E. 

Barnacle Goose seen at following stations : — Barra Head (88), 
Kyleakin (90). 

88. April 25th, 100, "flying over;" light N.E., clear. May 1st, 
150, fresh N.E., clear. Sept. 22nd, about thirty arrived, 
light S.W., haze and rain. Nov. 10th, about fifty seen 
flying S., var. W., showers. 

90. Nov. 30th, seven flying S.W. ("first I have seen here"), 
light N.W., clear. Five species of Geese. 

Eider Ducks, ut sup, 82, 95, 103. 

82. May 26th, six, passing N., light S.W., clear. June 30th, 

sixteen, passing N., light E., var. 

95. Oct. 12th, one, first seen this season. Oct. 15th, six, fishing 
round rock. November, forty (twenty males and twenty 
females), fishing round rock, light N.W., clear. 

Wild Duck, only at 83, 88, 90. 

83. March 21st, two males and two females, killed at lantern ; 

slight S.E., haze. 
88. Sept. 21st, twenty, flying W., light E., haze. 
90. Sept. 19th, four, flying S.W., light E. 

Eider Ducks at Ehu Stoir, Dhuheartach, and Ehinns of 
Islay. Three at first named locality on April 14th ; light S., 
haze and rain. Six on May 26th ; strong S.W., passing north. 
Sixteen on June 30th, passing north, with light var., and clear. 
Then at Dhuheartach, the first seen this season was on Oct. 
12th, in autumn migration, and at Khinns of Islay, three seen 
during a S.W. gale. At Dhuheartach again, twenty males and 
twenty females, seen fishing round the rock, during strong 
W.N.W. wind, and clear on Dec. 7th. Two species. 



74 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



CoLUMBiDiE. — A large flock of Rock Doves is resident at Butt 
of Lewis, and is seen daily flying inland to feed. At Kyleakin a 
Woodpigeon was seen flying S.E. at noon on Dec. 15th, with light 
W. wind, and clear ; at same station, on 23rd, four Rock Doves 
flying south, wind light W.S.W. ; and at same place two more 
flying south, with E.S.E. and haze, on Jan. 2nd. One species. 

Rallin^. — Corn Crake. — At Stornoway, first heard on May 
2nd. At Barra Head, one seen on July 1st, var., S.E., and fog. 
At Kyleakin, first heard on May 16th, S., clear. At Rhinns of 
Islay, one found dead on May 23rd, light W., haze. One species. 

Charadriadje. — Spring. Oystercatchers are resident all the 
year at Cape Wrath. At Barra Head, three pairs arrived on 
April 10th. At M'Arthur's Head they were present all April. 

In autumn oyster catchers appeared in flocks, along with the 
rush of land migrants, about Aug. 23rd, at Stornoway, at which 
place they are generally seen all September. 

Golden Plover records quite absent for 1883. 

Lapwing. — Spring record at Rhu Stoir, two seen on April 
4th. In autumn, at Kyleakin, ninety were counted flying S.E., 
and crying loudly, with N.W. wind and haze, on Aug. 15th. 
Eight more on 23rd, flying east, wind S.E., and haze; and at 
Lamlash, a single bird rested on the Island on Aug. 13th. At 
Barra Head, seventeen were seen at two p.m., light east wind, 
and haze (direction of flight not given), on Sept. 21st; one 
record there also in October. At Loch Ryan, a flock flying S.E., 
on Nov. 15th, S.E. wind; and at Dhuheartach, where migration 
appeared to cease on Dec. 29th, the last migrant seen was a 
Lapwing, resting on the Lantern on that date. At Kyleakin 
seven were seen flying S.W. on Jan. 4th, 1884. Two species. 

ScoLOPAciDTE. — Woodcock, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel. No 
records of Woodcock till October. Then a few at Monach Island, 
Dhuheartach, Lismore, and Loch Ryan ; and in November, at 
Kyleakin and Lismore. Single 'fentries on 16th at Kyleakin, and 
5th at Lismore. Two killed at Monach on Oct. 29th, one killed 
at Dhuheartach on 31st, and three on 29th, at Lismore ; and one 
on 31st, at Loch Ryan, showing a general movement at these dates. 

Snipe were even scarcer ; earliest Oct. 22nd, at Monach, and 
occurring on the same dates as Woodcock, or nearly. 

Curlew. — Numerous records at most of the stations, dating 
from Feb. 5th, at Rhuvaal, on to November. An appearance of 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 75 

a rush northwards on May between 14th and 16th, when flocks 
seen flying north at Ehinns of Islay ; also on 16th, at Lismore, 
during the day. Kecords also at Loch Kyan, Skerryvore, &c. 

In autumn, at Stornoway, Monach, Barra Head, and most 
stations indeed ; earliest, July 25th, at Skerryvore, when five 
Curlews seen flying N.E., on to Nov. 16th, at Sound of Mull. 
Between Sept. 16th and 30th, at Stornoway, seen every day on 
the shore, and large numbers on the 30th. 

There is only one record of Whimbrel under the name '* The 
Small Curlew," when two were seen at Skerryvore flying about 
the rocks. I wish we could more exactly trace the lines of 
migration of the Whimbrel, or " May fowl " of the Hebrides, in 
both spring and autumn (see remarks of Mr. D. Gray in the 
Atlantic, antea). No records of Eedshanks or Sandpipers. Four 
species. 

Laeid-e ; Steenin^. — Arrivals in spring recorded as follows : 
— At Khu Stoir, three Terns on May 10th ; light N. breeze. At 
Stornoway, Terns '* arrived as usual about this time," and left 
in August. At Skervuile, arrived on 14th, and more seen on 
16th. The first came with a fresh S. breeze and rain. At 
Corsewall first observed was on May 11th. 

In autumn. Terns, as already stated, left Stornoway in 
August, but '* about ten days later than usual." The last seen 
at Skervuile was on Sept. 6th. At Sound of Mull, on Sept. 30th, 
a flock rested for two hours, and then flew away S.E., composed 
of old and young together. Moderate wind. 

An utter absence of records of any Gulls, Skuas, " Boat- 
swains," or any other Laridse. One or two species ? 

PEOCELLAEiiDiE. — One rccord of Storm Petrel at Lismore, 
where it is accounted very rare, on Oct. 3rd, when one was 
killed ; strong N.W. wind, and haze. One species. 

Alcid^. — At various stations taken notice of as follows : — 
At Barra Head, a few seen on Feb. 4th ; fresh S.W., banks of 
fog. No records in April. *' Marrots " and " Kazorbills." At 
Barra Head, numbers seen of same, and Puffins, on April 27th ; 
light S.E. wind. A few Puffins seen on May 1st; and fresh 
N.E. A great many more on May 2nd; fresh N.E. At Butt 
of Lewis, first Kazorbills seen on April 25th. 

In autumn, Marrots leave Barra Head Aug. 12th, along with 
the bulk of Eazorbills, but Puffins not till Aug. 25th. Marrots 



•76 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

and Eazorbills left with fresh E. wind. Puffins left in fresh 
S. wind. 

Cormorants arrived about same time as Razorbills and 
Alcida3, but remain about six weeks later at Butt of Lewis ; and 
at Kyleakin there is record of a flock of twenty-eight flying W. 
on 13th, with S.W. breeze. Four- species. 

CoLYMBiDJL. — On June 10th one great N. Diver seen swim- 
ming near Lighthouse, at Kyleakin, moving N. (but this move- 
ment may be due to set of the tide only, hour not given, 
J. A. H. B.). In autumn, at Sound of Mull, a G. N. D., passing 
S., var., light breezes. At Lismore, one flying south ; stormy W., 
rain, on Oct. 17th. At Sound of Mull, two passing south, at 
noon ; light airs. If the movement is only local and due to 
tides, this should be mentioned in schedules, and the words 
'* drifting with tide," or " swimming with tide," used instead of 
" passing." They are not likely to swim against the tide, but if 
this phenomenon is observed it should be recorded. One species. 

Weather Notes for General Remarks on Spring 
Migration, 1883. 

Fearful snow-storm over the north of Shetland on March 
17th, and N.E. gales and snow prevailed from March 5th to 
24th ; E. and N.E. and N. winds prevailed all over Scotland with 
gales, notably on March 6th and 17th ; from 6th to 24th slight 
changes to S.E., but of short duration; on 25th (Sunday) wind 
S.W. strong to gale and rain, the first rain .since February, but 
only lasted half a day; wind backed again to N.E. In Orkney 
the sea rose suddenly very high on the E. coast on March 21st ; 
very cold and fine on 22nd, wind light S.W. " Large quantities 
of Cormorants, Eazorbills, and Shags, &c., are coming ashore 
along the E. coast of Orkney. Deaths supposed to be from 
scarcity of food, viz., coal-fish ; and great damage done to 
rabbits by Hawks, in some cases nearly exterminating them " 
(daily papers of March 23rd, 1883). At Dunipace 12^ of frost on 
night of March 27th. Fearful gale at 9 a.m. on March 30th, bar. 
at 28' 9'' ; gale all night from S.W., bar. rising all day; again 
till 9 p.m. to 29' 6", wind S.W. at 10 p.m. ; again at 30' 2". S. 
gale at Isle of May on March 29th and 30th. 

As already mentioned in ouj* General Remarks on 1882 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 77 

Report (Fourth Eeport, 1882, p. 67) the effects of these gales 
and N.E. winds in spring of 1883 was almost to stop migration 
at Isle of May, which migration had *' set in pretty briskly 
on March 2nd, and almost ceased on the 5th. From the latter 
date only a few " stragglers of the strongest wings " up to the 
19th ; while a great concourse of Wagtails was observed inland in 
Edinburgh (see report as above quoted) ; few were seen at Isle of 
May till the 30th, when five came with S. gale {op. cit,, p. 68). 

The general migration was much weaker in numbers this 
season in spring, and this is doubtless owing to the prevalence of 
strong S.E. gales and winds at the time of migration, moderate 
S.E. or easterly winds being preferred. Still there were con- 
siderable rushes at the more favourable localities for observation 
especially of Thrushes and other Turdidce, 

The anomalous migration recorded by Mr. Cordeaux on to part 
of the English coast between Feb. 18th and May 18th,* with 
strong E. and S.E. winds, changing occasionally by N.E. to W. 
and N.W., is somewhat difficult of explanation, unless we could 
correlate data from the opposite coasts at the same dates in 
spring of 1883 ; but the fact stated by me that migration began 
briskly at Isle of May on March 2nd and almost ceased by the 
5th may indicate that the migration thus retarded by adverse 
winds, or altered in direction thereby, passed N. by more inland 
routes, avoiding the Scottish coast-line, and hugging every 
sheltering hollow of land. Blown across the North Sea at the 
more southerly stations, they then crept northwards silently and 
more inland. Being all adult birds, and having crossed the 
North Sea not at the widest part if they came with a S.E. wind, 
less exhaustion would occur, and thus, passing inland, they would 
escape notice near the coast. 

Before we can speak with much certainty as to the progress 
of spring migrations into the further districts influenced by them, 
we require more full and continuous data from Faroe and Iceland. 
Still, the earliest appearance noted in Iceland of the Eedwing, 
Turdus iliacus, on April 7th, 1882, should be noted as a possible 
means of comparison in that year with the returns from our own 
coasts. Data from our West Coast of Scotland help us little in 
1883 in spring, and even less so in 1882, as regards Turdidce. 
Wheatears again, in 1882, are noted not before April 24th, and 

* See p. 60 of this Eeport. 



78 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

on West Coast of Scotland the migration, though but scantily 
observed, began on March 9th and terminated as late as May 
17th (see 1882 Eeport, p. 57). 

The autumn migration of 1883 was pronounced, and confined 
principally to end of October and November, of Turdidce^ Cinclidce 
(one of which, seen at Isle of May, was afterwards described to 
me as having no brown between the black and white of the 
breast) ; also of Snow Buntings, Sky Larks, Eobins (small 
numbers), Linnets, Chaffinches, Starlings, culminating in a grand 
rush past of the bulk between Oct. 28th or 30th and Nov. 3rd. 
The heaviest rush, observed at the time of a south wind, as 
compared with other years, at Isle of May, was on Oct. 13th 
and 14th, a S.E. wind, according to Mr. Agnew, being usually 
more favourable at that point. This October to November rush 
is undoubtedly the principal feature of our returns over the 
whole country. Of the expansion of the fan or wave our returns 
from both E. and W. coasts give a very fair indication. It seems 
likely that, although most land- stations have not returned very 
heavily-laden schedules, — not to compare, for instance, with 
1882, — yet, as noticed by Mr. Cordeaux, quite as many, if not 
more, birds were observed at the lightships ; that the reason for 
this may be found in the normal and favourable direction of the 
winds prevailing in the North Sea at the time of autumn 
migration, resulting in greater numbers of birds passing inland 
without resting, and being thus less liable to come under 
observation, except at specially suitable stations. And, if we 
/ compare the schedules of 1883 and those of 1882 on the West 
Coast of Scotland we find that, while larger numbers are 
recorded at the more northerly stations in 1883 than in 1882, 
there is a lighter return at more southerly stations in the autumn 
of 1883 than there was in the autumn of 1882. Thus to no in- 
considerable degree the order of the statistics of two years is 
reversed. It would almost appear in this way that when a 
** spread fan" reaches our E. coast with S.E. winds — reaching, 
as it did in 1882, from Faroe S. to the English Channel — the 
birds, being tired and worn out, promptly seek shelter, and then, 
when rested, pursue their migration on more southerly lines, and 
do not reach so far west, except such as fail to catch up the land, 
and are driven forward helplessly. This would cause comparative 
desertion of the more northerly -stations of the W. coast and 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 79 

Outer Hebrides, as in 1882. But on the other hand, when a 
"closed fan " reaches our E. coast with prevaiHng westerly and 
north-westerly winds, and, having much less expansion to the 
northward, as in 1883, as regards the E. coast, it seems that 
birds arriving, less exhausted with the winds best suited for 
their successful passage, pass on inland, the same lines of 
flight being persevered in, and thus reach further north upon the 
West Coast of Scotland. 

Thus the Goldcrest, in 1883, reached as far north as Dhu- 
heartach and Lismore in some numbers ; but in 1882, when 
they came in such vast hordes to our east coast, we had no 
records north of Khinns of Islay, and none others until we found 
them in "great numbers" at stations south of the Firth of 
Clyde. 

Kushes took place on August 16th at Isle of May, and again 
on 22nd, with easterly wind and fog, principally of Wheatears, 
culminating on night of Sept. 2nd — 3rd, and being accompanied 
by Eedstarts, Chiffchaffs, Kobins, Sedge Warblers, Wood Warblers, 
and Golden and Grey Plovers ; Thrushes apparently totally absent. 
A single adult Blue-throated Warbler, with bright blue breast, 
was observed at Isle of May. The rush was on Sept. 4th, at 
Pentland Skerries, with strong N. wind. Another rush, about 
Sept. 15th, of Willow Warblers and Chiffchaffs ; and, on 22nd, of 
Eobins, accompanied by a single recorded Goldcrest. A rush of 
the latter took place on Oct. 10th at Isle of May. Common 
Wrens, not in large numbers, also migrated on Sept. 22nd and 
23rd. 

Another feature of the 1883 Keport is the abundance of 
Finches, which usually travel with the Thrushes, but whose 
migration appears to be extended over a longer period of time 
than that of the Thrushes in 1883. 

It will be gathered from the Keport that the dates of rushes 
on our E. Scottish coasts were slightly later than those on the 
E. English coast, averaging from twenty-four to thirty hours by 
the schedules, and that the migration past the more northerly 
stations of Scotland were in proportion later than in the south. 
And also that the dates of the heaviest rushes on the E. coast 
agree fairly well with the dates of the W. coast. 

While closing our 1883 Eeport it is perhaps desirable to call 
attention to the very great spring migration of Woodcocks, which 



80 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

appears to have crossed Scotland between Clyde and Forth on 
March 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, 1884. On the 10th our covers 
here (Dunipace) were full of Woodcock. Torwood also held 
large numbers on 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th ; at Glenbervie, close 
to this, also unusual numbers were observed. From the Ayrshh'e 
coast they are reported numerous, but not more so than usual at 
this season, indicating that the Ayrshire coast, or i^roperties 
along the coast, are usually visited in the spring migration. At 
Fassaroe, Bray, Co. Wicklow, ' Mr. Barrington made enquiries, 
but no extraordinar}^ numbers have been noted there. At 
Islay Mr. Ballingall reports unusual numbers about the time 
mentioned. 

At Boss Priory, east side of Loch Lomond, a good many 
were observed, there being snow on the ground at the time ; but 
at Arden, on the west side, and almost immediately opposite, no 
additions were observed. At Aberfoyle and neighbourhood very 
large numbers were observed. In East Kilbryde Parish, to the 
south of Forth and Clyde isthmus, two were seen at a locality where 
none were ever seen before. At Callander no unusual number was 
noticed, a good many appearing here at this season, which is usually 
called *' The Beturn of the Woodcocks." Mr. Bobert Ferguson, 
on the 11th, flushed eight within a mile-radius, "a most un- 
usual circumstance here," — at Whitehill, Bosewell, Midlothian, — 
and large numbers were observed near Innerleithen in Holylee 
Woods and vicinity. To the east of this county no numbers of 
any consequence were noted at Tulliallan or West Grange, in 
Fife.* All the birds seen by myself were small red Scandinavian 
birds, which I consider are quite unmistakable and distinct from 



* Subsequently I received a note from Mr. Seton Thomson, of Kinnaird 
House, Stirlingshire, to the effect that the gamekeeper, on March 1st, on 
taking a bee-line to Airth, two and a half miles over moss-land (Airth is on 
the Stirlingshire side of the Firth of I^rth, where about three hundred yards 
of water separate it fi-om Tulliallan) put up half a dozen Woodcocks in a 
place where Woodcocks are very rarely seen. Many also were seen about 
the garden at Kinnaird House; these were observed not to be the usual 
Woodcocks, but a much redder-looking bird. There appears to have been a 
great flight of Woodcocks at Aberfoj^le about March 15th. Mr. E. Ker's 
keeper flushed five in about two square yards, and kept inittiag them up all 
over. Two were seen also at Crutherland, by East Kilbride, on the 12th, 
where a Woodcock was never seen before. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



81 



home-bred birds. One with an injured muscle under the wing 
was brought into the house, — also a red bird, — which was found 
alive in a ditch close to. 

I would like further to have ascertained the boundaries within 
which this migration was observed ; how far to the north and how 
far to the south of the catchment Basin of Forth it extended. 
Here I can do little more than direct attention to the facts, so 
far as known to me. But it seems evident that, though so 
abundantly observed at Airth and Kinnaird, scarcely any in- 
crease was noticeable just across the Forth at Tullyallan or 
West Grange, or in Fife ; and though numerous at Boss Priory 
and Loch Lomond on the east side, no increase was observed at 
Arden and the west side of the loch. When the birds "lifted " 
from Kinnaird and Airth, their next probable resting place would 
be Norway or the continental coast, possibly Heligoland, as no 
notice is taken of them in the 1884 spring returns from Isle of 
May or Bell Kock. Nor does there appear to have been any 
corresponding movement through the Pentland Firth. 



I should like in this place to record the occurrence of the 
Black Eedstart in the following form. It is previously recorded 
by me in the Proc. Koyal Physical Society, Edinb. of April 23rd, 
1884 :— 



Date. 


Locality. 


Species. 


r^ a 
in 




o 


of 

o 


a 
1 


<0 00 


"3 


32 


evailing 
ind for 
ist Few 
Days. 


Weather. 








ko 




^ 




O 


OCB 




42 


^^^ 




1884. 


























Mar. 31. 


Pentland 
Skerries. 


Buticilla 

titys 
(Scop.). 


Ad. 


S" 




X 




X 


S.E. 


Strong. 


S.&S.E. 


Clear on 

28th. 

Fog on 
























31st. 




REMAEKS. 


* If with other species, name tl 


lem here: — 1 Eobin, Sandpipers, 1 Yellow Bunting, 


1 Chaffinch, " Stonechats" ( 


i.e., Wheatears), 1 G.C.Wren, 1 Common Thrush. 



M 



82 



IRISH COAST. 

In the spring of 1883 schedules were forwarded to forty-two 
stations, Arklow North Lightship having been added to those of 
the previous year. Twenty-five replied. 

In the autumn only thirty-five schedules were sent out, seven 
having been omitted, i.e., Mine Head, Wicklow Head, Lough 
Swilly, Eagle Island East, Slyne Head South, Loop Head, and 
Samphire Island. Thirty-four were returned, one station 
sending no answer. 

A decided improvement in filling the schedules occurred in 
the autumn, the observations of some light-keepers extending 
over three or even four schedules. The labour of arranging the 
materials for this report and placing the entries under the head 
of each species has consequently been much increased. 

In addition to the schedules the light-keepers at Coningbeg 
light-ship, Tuskar Rock, Rathlin Island, Killybegs, Tearaght, 
and Skelligs have forwarded lists of all the birds they have 
observed, whether migrating or otherwise. There is an evident 
disposition on the part of all to help us as far as possible in this 
enquiry. The light stations are arranged geographically — 
beginning at the Fastnet, in Cork, and going' round by the east 
to the west coast. 

The number of migrants passing in the autumn seems to 
have been greater than usual. A great rush of Thrushes (including 
probably Redwings), Blackbirds, and Starlings, took place at our 
south eastern and southern stations between Oct. 25th and Nov. 
2nd — notably at the Tuskar, on the Wexford coast, which is the 
best Irish station. Smaller rushes of these and other birds are 
also recorded, but it is premature at present to analyse the move- 
ments of each species or the dates on which they occurred. 
After a few years conclusions will be far more satisfactory. 

The great majority of birds are killed striking on foggy, misty, 
or dark nights, and it is perhaps not impossible for a great 
migration to take place, and pass almost unrecorded if the night 



IRISH COAST. 83 

be fine and bright. Whenever a bu'd has been killed striking, it 
is so stated, and not left to be understood. 

The bulk of the migrants appear to arrive on our south 
eastern coast, except such birds as the Barnacle Goose and Snow 
Bunting, which are mainly recorded from the north western 
stations, being rarely entered in the schedules from the east or 
south coasts. 

An interesting feature this year is the occurrence of several 
examples of the Greenland Falcon on the west coast. 

The winter of 1883-4 was exceptionally mild, and the entries 
due to local migration from frost and hard weather are probably 
few. 

Many entries no doubt refer to birds not migrating at all, 
but none have been omitted, as it is difficult to know where to 
draw the line. It is desirable, however, that the light-keepers 
should state whether the bird is believed to be migrating or 
merely moving about the district from local causes. 

In the schedules for next year a special column for the direction 
of flight has been added. This we think quite as important 
as the direction of the wind. Birds seem rarely to fly directly 
with the wind. Attention is drawn to this point in order to 
have it confirmed or otherwise. 

In order to diminish the errors in the identification of species 
the light-keepers have been instructed to forward, when possible, 
a leg and wing of every bird about which they are doubtful, and 
we trust they will do so. 

Some entries seem very improbable, and others are isolated 
and apparently valueless. When records accumulate, both may 
prove useful. 

In addition to the little Skellig Kock — off the coast of Kerry 
— the Gannet also breeds on the Bull Eock fifteen miles further 
south, and a few are also reported as breeding in the Cow Eock 
quite close to it. 

No matter what results are arrived at from this enquiry, it 
is satisfactory to be in correspondence with a number of observers 
on isolated points all around the coast. 

The information supplied, if corroborated during several years 
by different light-keepers, cannot but be valuable, and we wish to 
impress on them the necessity of continuing to assist in this 
investigation. 



84 REPORT ON THE MIGRAl ION OF BIRDS. 

To all the light-keepers who have given their time and 
attention to the subject we return our sincere thanks, especially 
as their assistance is voluntar}^ and given solely for the advance- 
ment of knowledge. 

Mr. Armstrong, Secretary to the Irish Lights Board, and 
Captain Boxer, K.N., Inspector of Irish Lights, have helped us 
in many ways by their advice and co-operation. The Commis- 
sioners of Irish Lights have given us every facility, and also 
material support by subscribing for forty copies of the report 
and distributing them among the light-keepers. 

Alexander G. More. 
KiCHARD M. Barrington. 



List of Light-stations. 



1. Fastnet, Co. Cork 

2. Galley Head, Cork 

8. Old Head, Kinsale, Cork 

4. Mine Head, Waterford 

5. Dungarvan, Waterford 

6.-Coningbeg Lt.-ship, Wexford 

6. Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, do. ... 

7. Tuskar Eock Lt.-ship, do. ... 

8. Ai-klowSth.Lt.-ship,Wicklow 
S.'^Arklow North Lt.-ship, do.... 

10. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, Dublin 

11. Howth Baily, Dublin 

12. Kockabill, Dublin 

13. Copeland Island, Down 

14. Maidens, Antrim 



15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 
25. 
26. 

27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 



Eathlin, Antrim 

Innishtr ahull, Donegal .. 
Dunree Head, Donegal .. 
Lough Swilly, Donegal .. 

Tory Island, Donegal 

Arranmore, Donegal 

Eathlin O'Birne, Donegal 

Killybegs, Donegal 

Oyster Island, N. Sligo .. 

Broadhaven, Mayo 

Eagle Island, E., Mayo .. 
Eagle Island, W., Mayo .. 

Blacki'ock, Mayo 



Blacksod Point, Mayo 

Clare Island, Mayo 

Slyne Head, N., Galway.. 
Slyne Head, S., Galway.. 
Arran Island, N., Galway 

Straw Island, Galway 

Arran Island, S., Galway 
Samphire Island, Kerry . . 

Tearaght, Kerry 

Valentia, Kerry 

Skelligs, Kerry 

Dursey Island, Cork 





a 


Miles 




'si 


S3 

-.2 


from 




02 




< 


ehore. 


Names of Observers. 





X 


8 


James Walsh. 






- ■ 


John Whelan and 


X 


X 


John Kelly. 


X 


X 


— 


Martin Kennedy. 


o 




X 





Wm. Higginbotham. 


X 


X 


10 


Patrick Cullen. 


X 


X 


4 


Michael Doyle. 


X 


X 


7 


Eichard Hamilton. 


X 


X 


7 


Patrick Clancy. 


X 


X 


8 


WilHam Daly. 






M 


Michael Cunniam and 


X 


X 


John Pinston. 



X 



X 


5 


Joseph Hammond. 


X 


X 


3 


John Walsh. 


•V 


V 


5 


Patrick Keenan and 


X 


A 


Michael Barry. 


X 


X 


6 


John A. Murray. 


X 


X 


6 


W. H. James. 





X 


- 


John Stapleton. 


X 


•■:■ 


- 


Henry Eedmond. 





X 


9 


Thomas Sweeny. 


X 


X 


5 


Henry WiUiams. 


X 


X 


2 - 


Joseph Hill and 
.John Scallan. 


X 


X 


— 


Daniel Hawkins. 


V 


X 


1 


John Young and 


^^ 


x^ 


Joseph Hill. 





X 


— 


Patrick Keenan. 


X 


■',' 


2 


Henry Stocker. 





X 


2 


Matthew Healy. 





v 


9 


f John Eedmond and 


2L 


^John Young. 





X 


- 


Eobt. W. Eedmond. 


X 


X 


4 


G. H. BrowneU. 


X 


X 


3 
3 
9 


Eobert Tyi-reU. 


u 




X 


Thomas Fortune. 


X 


X 


9 


Charles Boyle. 


X 


X 


6 

1 


John O'Donnell. 


u 
X 


X 


or 

9 


Edward McCarron. 





X 


- 


Joseph Williams. 





X 


9 


Thomas Kerley. 


X 


X 


2 


James Keenan. 



o = No reply. x = Schedule returned partly or wholly filled. 

* = No schedule sent to this station. 



86 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



General Kemarks of Light-Keepers. 

Fastnet. — " Autumn : On the night of Nov. 2nd, the weather 
being hazy, there was a quantity of all species of bu-ds came 
from the N.E., and several of them were killed by striking the 
lantern ; but what was most remarkable was the quantity of 
large Moths, which I could compare to nothing but a heavy fall 
of snow, they were so numerous. In bad weather a few Seals 
frequent the rock, and a quantity of Gulls and Sea Parrots — the 
latter I have frequently seen killed and eaten by the Eoyal Gull. 
The Gannet is here all the year. No birds breed. On Nov. 
2nd, from one a.m. to seven a.m., there were killed by striking 
the lantern twenty-two Thrushes, eleven Blackbirds, four Wood- 
cocks, seventeen Starlings, eight Linnets, five Larks, and seven 
Eobins. Wind S.E., light, hazy." — James Walsh. 

Galley Head. — ** Spring : The flight of the Gannet and Puffin 
is always to the west here. I have many times thought they 
must pass east by some other route. The Grey-backed Crow 
and Common Crow are seen all the year round. The Wagtail, 
Stonechat, and other small birds have almost disappeared this 
year. The Cuckoo I have not seen or heard this year. I have 
never been at a station with less birds about than this one. I 
am four years here, and there has not been one case of a bird 
striking the lantern." — John Whelan. 

" Autumn : I arrived at this station Nov. 6th, and from 
that date to the present from ninety to - one hundred Sea 
Gulls are to be seen daily flying about the cliffs near the 
Lighthouse. No birds of any other species have been seen 
passing."— John Kelly. Feb., 1884. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — " Autumn : I have only seen some small 
birds, such as Larks and Chaffinches, from Dec. 17th to Jan. 1st, 
1884. There are Sea Gulls, Books, and Grey Crows seen here 
all the year round, also two Falcon Hawks. Starlings com- 
menced to leave here the last week of November. Larks, Wrens, 
Titmice, and Twite Linnets are seen all the -year round, and on 
the lake, three miles distant, large Duck, Widgeon, Coot, and 
Waterhens. On Dec. 15th I saw a large flight of birds going to 
the south at a great height, and suspect they were Golden Plover. 
The Curlew never leaves the marffh three miles from here. I 



IRISH COAST. 87 

never saw less birds than there is this winter." — Martin 
Kennedy. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — ** Autumn : A great quantity of birds 
passed this station last month. I have not seen so many birds 
killed since I came to this station three years ago." — Patrick 
Cullen. Nov., 1883. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — " Spring : I have observed very 
few land birds passing this year, and none about the ship in 
foggy weather, like other stations I have been at." 

Tuskar Rock. — '' Spring : A great absence of sea fowl this 
year. I consider it owing to the scarcity of fish." 

Arkloiu North Light-ship. — " Autumn : As a rule all birds 
give the ship a wide berth when passing, and it is very hard to 
tell what they are. During thick foggy nights a large quantity 
of small land birds are killed striking our lantern." — William 
Daly. 

Copeland Island. — " Autumn : A number of sea birds of 
different species resort to this locality in the autumn and winter 
months for feeding purposes, and are seen in greater or lesser 
numbers each day as the weather suits and feeding is plentiful. 
They are Gannets, Cormorants, Puffins, Grey and Royal Gulls, 
Sea-pies, 'Cranes,' Ducks, Teal, Curlew, and Sandpipers. None 
of these breed in the vicinity. On Oct. 10th a rush of Larks, 
Starlings, Linnets, Titmice, Thrushes, Blackbirds, *Grey' Plover, 
and Snipe. Eighteen Starlings, six Blackbirds, twenty Larks, 
twelve Linnets, eight Titmice, four Thrushes, three Plover, and 
two Snipe killed striking lantern, and several injured but not 
killed."— John Walsh. 

South Maidens. — '* Spring: No birds strike the lantern in 
April and May. They do not strike until October. Twelve 
Gannets, twenty-four Ducks, six Sea-pies, and twelve Wild Geese 
are all the birds I have seen for three months." — Patrick Keenan. 
— "Autumn: I arrived here Sept. 25th, 1883, and saw no birds 
up to Oct. 15th, save Puffins, Sea Gulls, and Cormorants, and 
Sand Larks occasionally. Thrushes, Blackbirds, and Larks are 
rarely seen. Wild Duck do not strike the lantern glass."— 
Michael Barry. 

Rathlin Island.—" k^Yii 12th: Blackbirds, Thrushes, Sky- 
larks, Wild Ducks, Redshanks, Pigeons, and *Sea Coot' seem to 
remain for the season. Autumn : I have never at any time 



88 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

during the migratory season for Ducks, Widgeon, Wild Geese, 
Barnacles, and Swan heard them passing at night as at other 
stations." — John A. Murray. 

InnishtraJudl. — " April 30th. A small bird with an orange 
tail, name unknown, struck, not killed." Wind S.W.; a gale. 
" Very little birds visited this island in May, June, and July, 
except a flock of Curlew." Autumn : " There has been a great 
absence of birds this winter, and no Snipe or Woodcock visited 
this place. Snow Buntings remained here all the past winter." 
Diniree Head. — *' Autumn : No birds resort to this station only 
Cormorants, which remain all the year and breed. I have been 
at several stations on the coast, but never was at a station so 
scarce of birds as this." — John Stapleton. 

Tory Island. — ''Autumn: Very few birds past this station. 
I suppose owing to its being so far out to sea. I am informed 
that birds pass more frequently the east side of the island. On 
the islands between this and the mainland large flocks of Barnacle 
stop during the winter months. I have not seen a Snow Bunting, 
Snipe, or Starling this season. During heavy frost, snow-birds 
frequent the island from the mainland, but return as soon as 
the thaw commences." — Thomas H. Sweeny. 

Arranmore. — " Spring : Gulls and Puffins have laid great 
quantities of their eggs this year on the rock. A great many 
have been destroyed by the Grey Crow." — Henry Williams. 

Killyhegs. — "Autumn: The birds which breed around here 
are the Wild Duck, Wild Pigeon, Lapwing, Lark, Linnet, 
Swallow, Snipe, Common Wren, Thrush, Kobin, Blackbird, 
Sparrow, Stonechat, Sand Lark, and Grey Crow." — Daniel 
Hawkins. 

Broadhaven. — ** Autumn : No birds strike this light." — 
Patrick Keenan. 

Eacfle Island, East. — ** Since I joined this station in Sept., 
1882, up to present date, Sept., 1883, nothing worth noting." — 
H. Stocker. 

Eagle Island, West. — " There was absolutely nothing of 
interest to enter in schedule last autumn-. The sea has been 
crossing this island, I may say daily, for the last five months, 
and with the exception of a few Sea Gulls, which seem never to 
leave the locality, there were no birds visited." March, 1884. — 
Matthew Healy. 



IRISH COAST. 89 

Blacksod. — " I have carefully looked out for birds, and seen 
none worth entering. I have seen several seals." — Kobert W. 
Kedmond. 

Clare Island, — " In February very few birds are seen at this 
station. No birds strike this lantern. A great number of seals 
frequent this place in caves round the cliffs." — George H. 
Brownell. 

Slyne Head, North. — *' Spring : I beg to remark that at all 
times sea birds are to be seen on this coast, their numbers being 
chiefly regulated by the feeding for them." — Kobert Tyrrell. 

Arran Island, North. — "During the months of January and 
February no birds are seen except a few Sea-pies and Sand- 
larks. It must be in consequence of the very wild and stormy 
weather." — Thomas Fortune. 

Straw Island. — " Spring : The different species of sea fowl 
are very scarce this season. I believe from the want of small 
fry. None breed on this island, it being low and flat. 
Autumn : Birds scarcely ever strike the lantern in consequence 
of the light appearing in a different direction to the general 
flight of birds, being also a red light. It is 26 feet above high 
water, and ten miles from land. I have remarked a greater 
number of Blackbirds and Starlings this winter than since the 
great frost of 1880. On Oct. 28th a flock of Wild Duck alighted, 
apparently much exhausted, and remained a few hours, and went 
S.E., towards land." — Charles Boyle. 

Tearaght. — July 30th. " The following birds are still on the 
island, viz., Guillemots, Sea Parrots, Kittiwakes, Grey Crows, 
Sea-pies, Kazorbills, Manx Shearwater, Stonechats, and, I think. 
Choughs and Falcons (Blue Hawks). All these breed on the 
island. Dec. 18th, birds remaining: Grey Linnets, Kock 
Pigeon, Thrushes, Mackerel Cock (on water). Blackbirds. 
Kesidents, Titlarks and Common Wren. The ' Mackerel Cock ' 
is about the size of a Eazorbill, but it is not the Kazorbill. 
Thousands of them are round the rock now. Feb. 2nd, 1884." 
(See under Manx Shearwater). 

Dursey Island. — ''The Gannet breed on the Bull Eock, 

several hundred. On the Cow Eock, distant three-quarters of a 

mile from the Bull, a few also breed. I believe the Gannet did 

not breed on the Bull until after the Skellig light was erected." 

[This was in 1826. B. M, B.]— Michael Shea. " Very few birds 

N 



90 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

breed on this island, except the Wild Pigeon, Jackdaw, and a few 
Sea Gulls. On the Bull Eock, four miles N.W. of Dursey Head, 
the Gannet and Puffin breed in great numbers, coming about 
March 1st and leaving Oct. 1st." — James Keenan. 

Eagle. 

Clare Island. — '* The Eagles still inhabit the cliffs, and have 
been as usual destructive to young lambs and fowls belonging 
to the inhabitants. In December they make very bold, and not 
having sea birds to feed on, are often observed near the villages, 
principally when the wind is east." 

Greenland Falcon. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Nov. 9th. '' Two grey speckled Hawks 
at three p.m., wind strong W., showery. One shot ; it measured 
four feet from tip to tip of wings, and had down under its feathers 
like a sea bird." 

Slyne Head, North. — Dec. 2nd, one White Hawk, at two 
p.m. ; wind N., clear. First seen here, and very tame. 

Tearaght. — Dec. 12th, Mr. P. Sheehy, assistant-keeper, saw a 
White Hawk ; wind N.W., strong breeze, and gloomy. March 
23rd, 1884, one white spotted Falcon shot. April 2nd, another 
much smaller and whiter shot. 

[This has been an extraordinary year for the occurrence of 
the Greenland Falcon, no less than eight having been obtained 
at various points along the west coast of Ireland from Donegal to 
Cork, and one Iceland Falcon at West Port.r— R. M. B.] 

Hawks. 

Fastnet, — Sept. 14th, one flying east. 

Diingarvan, — Dec. 17th, two Falcons passing S.W. 

Tuskar Rock. — Feb. 25th and 27th, March 3rd and 10th, one 
Hawk seen at daylight ; 26th, 'two Sparrow Hawks ; Oct. 13th 
and 15th, one seen. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — May 4th, one Sparrow Hawk, 
7.20 a.m., on lantern ; Feb. 22nd, 1884, one hovering about ship 
nine a.m. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 30th, three Hawks hovering 
about ship ; flew to N.W. 

Rockahill. — Aug. 31st, one caught on balcony. 



lEISH COAST. 91 

Rathlin Island. — June 25th, one Sparrow Hawk at noon; 
Aug. 28th, one Sparrow Hawk and one Falcon Hawk ; Dec. 8th 
and 20th, two Falcon Hawks at noon. 

Innishtrahull. — March 23rd, one Hawk, 11.50 a.m. ; wind 
strong W. April 15th, one, two p.m. ; wind N., fresh. May 15th, 
a Grey Hawk, at two a.m. ; wind N.W., misty. During August 
several " Brown Hawks," which remained most of the month ; 
Dec. 8th, one Brown Hawk. 

Lough Sivilly. — April 3rd, one Hawk, four p.m. ; May 14th, 
one Sparrow Hawk ; June 22nd, two Hawks. 

Arranmore. — April 12th, Peregrine Hawks breed on island; 
15th, one Sparrow Hawk ; May 6th, four Hawks ; June 28th, 
one ; Sept. 4th, one. 

Killyhegs. — Aug. 14th, one hovering about. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Dec. 10th, two Falcons flying N.E., high; 
wind S.W., gale. Dec. 19th, one Falcon, one p.m. ; wind W., 
fresh, gloomy. Dec. 24th, two Sparrow Hawks, flying S.E.; 
wind S., gale. 

Clare Island. — Two Kestrel Hawks build their nest, as usual, 
in the vicinity of the Lighthouse. 

Arran Island, South. — April 8th, four " Holland Hawks," six 
a.m.; wind S.S.E. They remain here. 

Tearaght. — Jan. 30th, one Falcon ? one p.m. ; wind N.W., 
clear. March 2nd, two Sparrow Hawks, also on March 3rd. 
They come and go occasionally the year round. Oct. 29th, one 
Hawk, colour grey, portions white and black, beak white, and 
white spot on crown of head. A pair of Falcons and " Sparrow 
Hawks " breed on the island. 

Valentia. — Sept. 1st, two small Hawks ; wind strong S.E. 
Also on Oct. 14th and Nov. 8th. 

Owl. 

Innishtrahidl. — Feb. 15th, one '* Brown Owl," two p.m. ; wind 
N.E., gale, squally. Nov. 8th, '' I have been told another 
snowy Owl was seen on the island about the 14th of last month, 
but not so large " as the specimen shot on Nov. 19th, 1882. 
*' It was not observed by me." (See last year's Eeport). 

Killyhegs. — April 10th, one " Screech Owl," shot at six p.m. 
Kose out of a swamp in vicinity, an unusual visitor. 



92 he port on the migration of birds. 

Thrushes. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 22nd, ten Thrushes ; Nov. 2nd, twenty-two 
killed striking. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Feb. 3rd, large numbers from sunrise to 
sunset, coming from the north. Dec. 16th, some hundreds ; 
wind N., frosty. 

Coiiingher/ Light-ship. — Oct. 26th, one alighted on ship ; 28th, 
flocks about the ship from 9 p.m. until midnight ; fifteen 
killed striking ; wind light, S., gloomy. 29th, a great number 
about ship during night, many killed and fell overboard; 
gloomy. They made for the land. 30th, three struck at 3 a.m., 
killed. 31st, two about light 10 p.m. 

Diuigarvan. — Oct. 2nd, a great number of song Thrushes in 
vicinity all day. Oct. 26th, plentiful in fields about station. 
28th, one ''Eedwing Thrush " struck 11.20 p.m. 

Tuskar Rock. — Feb. 24th and 25th, Thrushes during day 
and night, some struck ; fog and mist. Oct. 9th and 10th, 
Thrushes all night ; a great number killed and disabled. Oct. 
27th to Nov. 2nd, great numbers of Thrushes passed, many 
killed ; weather foggy, with mist. On Oct. 29th, at 7 a.m., I 
found two large mountain Thrushes, with grey breasts and dark 
wings (Fieldfares?). Most of the Thrushes that are killed are 
small mountain Thrushes, never seen here except in winter, 
mostly in frosty weather. They have no regular round spots on 
breast — a sort of striped head and a great deal of yellow under 
the wings (Kedwings?). Only twenty of the native Thrushes 
killed. 

Arkloiv South Light-ship. — March 2nd, five on deck. April 
22nd, three. Oct. 10th, one killed ; weather hazy. Oct. 28th 
and 29th, six killed, striking ; wind S., cloudy. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — Sept. 16th, a large flock hovering 
about ship during the day. 19tli, Thrushes killed striking about 
midnight. Oct. 29th and 30th, large numbers striking lantern ; 
calm, overcast, hazy. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 8th, one flighted at 10 a.m. 
28th, one killed striking 10.30 p.m. ; weather gloomy. 

Eockahill. — Jan. 13th, Thrushes in night, some struck; 
weather misty. Feb. 17th, some Thrushes from sunset to mid- 
night. Oct. 26th and 27th, large quantity killed in night; 



IBISH COAST. 93 

weather hazy, with light rain. Nov. 15th, Thrushes during 
night, some struck. Nov. 29th, five killed, overcast and cloudy. 
Dec. 28th, several struck at 8 p.m., mist and fog. Dec. 31st, 
two killed. 

Copeland Island. — Oct. 10th, four killed striking, others 
injured ; wind N., light, drizzling rain. 

South Maidens, — Oct. 15th, twenty-four at midnight, sixteen 
of them killed against lantern ; weather hazy, wind W., fresh. 

Innislitrahull. — Nov. 1st, three at lantern ; wind fresh, S. 
2nd, three at lantern, 11.30 p.m., misty. Nov. 5th, three at 
lantern. 

Tory Island, — Oct. 17th, four struck lantern, 10 p.m. ; wind 
W., gale. 

Killyhegs. — April 1st, five Thrushes about all day. Oct. 24th, 
three killed striking ; wind S.W., fresh, drizzling rain. Nov. 
30th, two killed, drizzling rain. Dec. 19th, three killed, thick 
drizzle. 

Oyster Island, North.— JsiU. 10th, 1884, two "Missel 
Thrushes " in garden; flew S. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Dec. 23rd, four Thrushes flying N., high ; 
wind S., fresh. 

Slyne Head, North.— 'Noy. 9th, eight; wind S.E. 30th, 
six; wind N.E. 

Arran Island, North. — Nov. 4th, two Thrushes killed in 
morning. Dec. 10th, two Thrushes 10 a.m. ; wind W.S.W., 
gale. 

Tearaght. — Oct. 27th, one Thrush killed striking, 11 p.m. ; 
wind fresh, S.E., foggy. Nov. 22nd, two or three, 2 p.m.; wind 
N.W., strong, hail showers. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 20th, one at 1 p.m. ; wind N., fresh, misty. 
Oct. 21st, three, remained during month. A couple about rock 
in December. 

Dursey Island. — Oct. 10th, ten going east, 8 a.m. ; wind W. 

Fieldfare. 

Fast7iet.—Bei^t. 18th, four flying N.E. ; gloomy. Oct. 22nd, 
five ; 31st, six. Nov. 1st, four. Dec. 16th, three. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 14th, small flocks in fields ; 18th and 26th, 
several. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 29th, one, going S. ; wind S.W. 



94 report on the migration of birds. 

Blackbird. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 22nd, thirteen. Nov. 2nd, eleven killed 
striking. 

Old Head, Kinsale, — Feb. 3rd, large numbers. Nov. 15th, 
from 100 to 150 seen this day. It is remarkable to see so many 
of these birds ; wind S., strong. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — May 7th, three alighted on ship, 9.30 
p.m. ; wind E.N.E., rain. Oct. 10th, one caught on deck at 2 
a.m. 28th, flocks, 9 p.m., until midnight, about the ship in great 
numbers ; gloomy, wind light S., twenty killed. 29th, a great 
number about light, 8 p.m., until midnight ; many struck and 
fell overboard. 31st, four at 10 p.m., hovering about light. 
Nov. 1st, two struck at 9 p.m., killed. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Oct. 29th, one male killed against 
lantern, 2.15 a.m. 

Tuskar Rock. — Feb. 24th, Blackbirds during day and night, 
fog and mist ; some struck lantern. 25th, 27th, and 28th, ditto. 
March 2nd, four males and seven females. Oct. 9th and 10th, 
constantly striking all night ; a great number killed. Oct. 27th 
to Nov. 2nd, great numbers passed at intervals during day and 
night ; weather misty. Numbers killed, 100 on Oct. 28th and 
80 on 29th, besides hundreds disabled. Most of the Black- 
birds are female ; they are of a dull brown colour. Nov. 7tb, 
two killed ; 10th, one seen. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — April 28th, one; wind light, S.E. 
Oct. 29th, twenty-six killed striking; wind S.,, light, cloudy. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — April 30th, Blackbird, 11 p.m. to 
11.50 p.m., flying round lantern; did not strike; weather hazy. 
Sept. 16th, large flock about ship. 19th, Blackbirds striking at 
midnight ; weather hazy, with rain. Oct. 29th and 30th, large 
numbers killed striking, calm, overcast, hazy. Nov. 30th, two 
killed at midnight ; weather hazy, with rain. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Oct. 28th, two Blackbirds. Nov. 
7th, two ; 13th, several, from 6 p.m. until midnight, flying about 
lantern ; clear. 

Rockahill. — Jan. 13th, Blackbirds during night, some struck, 
weather misty. Feb. 17th, Blackbirds, sunset to midnight ; rain 
and mist, some struck. Oct. 26th and 27th, large quantity 
struck lantern in night ; weather hazy, with light rain. Nov. 



IRISH COAST. 95 

15th, a dozen killed ; 28tli, six killed. Dec. 28th, four ; 31sfc 
three. In all cases weather overcast or misty. 

Copeland Island. — Blackbirds breed here, two pairs. Oct. 10th, 
six killed striking, others injured ; wind light N., drizzling rain. 

South Maidens, — Oct. 16th, four struck, 2 a.m., not killed ; 
weather hazy. 

Rathlin Island. — Oct. 31st, one killed striking. 

Innishtr ahull. — Nov. 1st, two at lantern ; wind fresh S., 
gloomy, misty. 2nd, one at lantern 11.30 p.m. ; wind S. 5th, 
two at lantern, 8 p.m. ; wind light N.E. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 18th, two struck, one killed, 9 p.m. ; 
wind W.N.W., gale. 

Killyhegs. — April 1st, three about all day. Nov. 30th, one 
killed striking, drizzling rain. Dec. 18th, one killed; 19th, 
another, weather thick. 

Black Rocky Mayo. — Oct. 22nd, four at 8 a.m. ; wind S.W., 
fresh, misty, flying S., high. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 9th, six; wind S.E. 

Arran Island, South.— Mslj 15th, thirty "Blackbirds," 6 
p.m. ; wind N.W. They remain here. Dec. 13th, two struck, 
not killed, 11 p.m. ; wind W.N.W. 

Tearaght. — Nov. 20th, one Blackbird at 3 p.m. ; wind W., fresh. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 20th, two at 1 p.m. ; wind N., fresh, misty. 
Remained during month. A couple about rock in December. 

Ring Ouzel. 

Rathlin Island. — April 18th, " one Blackbird," at 4 p.m.; wind 
^ strong S.E. This bird had a white throat. It was shot. 

Robin. 

Fastnet.— Oct. 27th, eight. Nov. 2nd, seven killed striking. 
Barrels Rock Light-ship, — Aug. 29th, one "Robin Red- 
breast," rested on ship. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 1st, two about all day. Nov. 13th, 

one seen. 

Straiv Island. — April 11th, two " Redbreasts," 9 a.m., calm. 
Passed island for shore. 

Arran Island, South, — July 1st, eighteen Robin Redbreasts, 
9 p.m. ; wind S.S.E., four killed. 



96 report on the migration of birds. 

** Blackcap." 

Arklow South Light-ship. — April 4th, three " Blackcaps " 
dead on deck, 7 a.m. ; wind fresh S.W., rain. 

" Sallypickers " OVillow Wren or Chiffchafif). 

Arklow North Light-ship. — x\pril 29th, eight " Sallypickers " 
flying round ship. May 1st, three ditto. 

*' Stone CHAT " OYheatear). 

Galley Head, — April 4th, saw *' Stonechicks," the first this 
year. 

Fastnet. — Sept. 14th, five young ones. Oct. 1st, twelve; 9th, 
twenty. Dec. 4th, seven ; 16th, two. 

Tuskar Rock. — Aug. 9th, three killed striking. Oct. 5th, 
** Stonechatters." 

Arklow North Light-ship. — April 21st, one " Stonechatter " 
on deck 6 a.m. 

Rathlin Island.— Ai^yH 28th, flocks of Stonechats, picked up 
five ; wind fresh S.E., misty, rain. May 2nd, six at 7 a.m. ; 
20th, seven.; 21st, ten all day about the station. Foggy and 
gloomy. June 3rd and 19th, three to six seen. 

Lmishtrahull.—X]^n\ 28th and 29th, '' Stonechickers," 2 
a.m. ; wind N. one day and S. the other. 30th, three, one 
struck lantern, killed ; a gale from S.W. May 3rd, two ; 5th, 
one. Sept. 20th, two struck lantern, not killed. Nov. 5th, two 
at lantern at midnight ; gloomy, misty. 

Arranmore. — April 3rd, four " Stonechatters arrived to build." 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 31st, April 1st and 6th, one to six 
Stonechats. 

Killyhegs. — I noticed during April and May some " Stone- 
chatters." 

Clare Island. — March 1st, some *' Stonechatters " flying S., 
11.30 a.m. 

Slyne Head, North. — April 1st, Stonechats arrive and increase 
in number from this date. Aug. 2nd, Stonechats disappear ; 
have not seen in what direction they come or go. 

Straiv Island. — April 5th, two Stonechats ; wind N.W., very 
light, clear. Remained on island/ 



L 



IRISH COAST. 97 

Arran Island, South,— Mslj 18th, twenty Stonechatters. 
They remain here. 

Tearaght. — May 26th, about half a dozen Stonechats arrived 
about this date. Sept. 20th, Stonechats left about this date. 

EeD START. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 13th, one about garden, being the only 
one seen in vicinity for seven years. 

Tearaght. — Oct. 27th, two Kedstarts, male and female. May 
have been on island some time previous. Kemained about a 
month. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 13th, four birds of a slatish colour, red on 
back near tail, about the size of a Titlark ; wind S.W., fresh. 
Fog and drizzle. Stayed all the month. 

GOLDENCRESTED WrEN. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 12th, five Goldencrested Wrens, 
one killed striking ; wind strong, N. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — April 27th, one alighted on ship, 8 
a.m. ; 29th, another ditto. 

Dungarvan, — Oct. 1st, two struck lantern ; and on 2nd, 9th, 
and 10th one or two, but none killed. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct. 9th, one ; 25th, one ; 26th, two ; 29th, 
two killed. Nov. 2nd, two seen. 

Copeland Island. — April 7th, six killed striking; weather 
clear, wind S.E. 

Arran Island, South. — June 20th, sixty " Goldencrested 
Wrens," 7 a.m. ; calm, blue sky. 

Wren. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 9th, Wrens. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Jan. 20th, five "Common Wrens," going 

S.W. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — May 10th, two Wrens killed, 10 p.m. ; 
wind moderate, N.N.E., clear. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — April 26th, one alighted on ship. 
May 8th, one ditto. Oct. 8th, one alighted on ship. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 4th, ''Wrens of all sorts," constantly 
striking all night ; several killed. June 24th, Wrens, 8 a.m. to 
10 a.m. Aug. 3rd, six '' Common Wrens," flying about rock, 





98 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

fog. Sept. 15th, three, one killed, fog. Oct. 22nd and 26th, 
one seen. Oct. 29th, " a small grey bh'd not much larger than 
a Wren with a black head," killed. 

Rockahill. — Feb. 8th, Wrens dm'ing night, some struck ; 
weather misty, wind S.E. Oct. 26th and 27th, Wrens about 
lantern in night ; weather misty. Nov. 15th, some killed striking ; 
wind S., rain. Dec. 31st, four killed. 

Rathlin Island. — April 28th, flocks of Wrens, picked up 
twelve; wind fresh S.E., misty, rain. Aug. 14th, one killed 
striking, 11 p.m.; wind light S.E., misty. 

Inmshtraliull. — Nov. 22nd, two Wrens at lantern, gloomy; 
wind N.W., gale. 

Killyhegs. — Nov. 15th, three Wrens, with other small birds. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Nov. 3rd, four Wrens, 11 a.m. ; wind 
W.N.W., light, one killed. 

Tearaght. — The Wren is resident. 

Valentia. — Dec. 12th, four "Common Wrens"; wind light W. 

Skcllif/s. — Sept. 20th, several *' Common Wrens" seen 
occasionally during winter. They breed here. 

Tits. 

Tuskar Rock. — March 29th, 9 p.m. to 4 a.m., Tits striking, 
twelve killed ; wind strong south, rain, and fog. May 8th, 
" Titmice " constantly striking, eight killed, from 11 p.m. to 4 
a.m.; wind N.W., and fog. 13th, constantly striking during 
night, twelve killed, fog, and mist. 15th, five killed, fog and 
mist. 19th, one seen. Sept. 16th, two killed. 

Copeland Island. — April 25th, one '* Titmouse," killed 
striking. Oct. 10th, eight killed striking ; wind N., light, 
drizzling rain. 

Wagtail. 

Dungarvan, — Jan. 14th, one'*' Golden Wagtail," on rocks. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Sept. 18th, one rested on ship, 
and flew N. 

Ratldin Island. — One *' Water Wagtail," seen on Aug. 12th, 
Oct. 10th, and Dec. 27th. 

Innishtr ahull. — May 5th, one Wagtail seen. Nov. 3rd, two. 

Arranmore. — May 3rd, one Grey Wagtail. 

Tearaght. — March 3rd, one Wagtail, 9 a.m. ; wind light S.E.; 



lElSH COAST. 99 

remained only a few minutes. May 24th, another. None 
observed previous to this year. 

Skelligs. — One seen in July ; very rare. 

Larks. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 9th, sixteen, flying west ; 22nd, seven ; 31st, 
eight. Nov. 1st, seven. Nov. 2nd, five killed striking. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — March 10th, large numbers from sun- 
rise to sunset, with Linnets and other small birds. 

Coningbeg Light-ship. — April 26th, two Larks killed, 9 p.m. ; 
wind light, rain. Oct. 9th, three caught on deck, 5 a.m. ; 10th, 
two caught on deck, 2 a.m. ; 28th, flocks from 9 p.m. to midnight, 
about the ship. Light S. wind, gloomy ; 29th, numbers about 
the light, 8 p.m. until midnight, many struck and fell overboard. 
Nov. 2nd, three struck lantern, killed. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 22nd, small straggling flocks all day. 

Barrels Rock Light- ship, — Sept. 16th, flock of three or four 
dozen rested on ship, flying N. Oct. 19th, one seen. 

Tuskar Rock. — Feb. 27th and 28th, and March 1st and 2nd, 
many Larks, some caught ; weather foggy and overcast, with 
mist. Sept. 9th, a flock at 8 a.m. ; 25th, another flock. Oct. 
8th, three killed striking ; 9th and 10th, constantly striking all 
night, many killed, mist and fog. At 8 a.m. on 10th, a large 
flock went west ; 13th, a flock ; 26th, thirty-five Larks killed 
striking, fog. Oct. 30th to Nov. 3rd, constantly striking at night, 
some killed ; in day time about rock, and flying to N.W., weather 
misty. 

Arkloiv South Light-ship. — March 2nd, six flying round ship. 
Flocks noted on Oct. 7th, 10th, 11th, 15th, and Nov. 7th and 8th; 
and on Oct. 20th, 21st, 27th; and 29th, a few passed. Seven 
killed on Oct. 10th and 11th, weather foggy. Oct. 29th four 
killed. 

Arkloiv North Light-ship. — Nov. 26th, a large flock going 
N.W. ; wind light N.W., clear. 

Kish Bank Light-ship.— Oct. 26th, five passing N.W. Nov. 
13th, several about lantern from 6 p.m. until midnight. Dec. 
23rd, three flying west ; 27th, one killed striking lantern, weather 
clear ; 31st, two killed striking, weather gloomy. 

Rockahill. — Oct. 26th and 27th, Larks about lantern in night ; 
weather misty. 



100 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Copeland Island. — Oct. 10th, twenty killed striking, others 
injured; wind north, light; drizzling rain. 

South Mdidois. — Oct. 16th, eight "common Larks" killed 
striking ; wind W.N.W., strong, weather thick. 

BatJdin Island. — Oct. 29th, two killed striking ; 30th, five 
killed, overcast, misty. 

Innishtrahull. — March 13th, eight struck, not killed, at 4 
a.m. ; wind S.W., fresh, fog and mist. May 5th, one seen. 
Nov. 1st, two, 10.30 p.m., at lantern, gloomy, misty. Nov. 3rd, 
one; 5th, one at lantern at midnight. Dec. 8th, three Sky- 
larks at 8 a.m. ; wind S.W., fresh. 

liatJdin O'Birne. — Skylarks noted on Feb. 2nd, which is 
earlier than on previous years. On March 30th and 31st, 
Ajn'il 1st, 3rd, and 6th, from four to eight. 

Killyhegs. — April 22nd, several Skylarks observed about this 
time. 

Oyster Island, North. — Dec. 26th, four Skylarks in a field ; 
flew south. 

Clare Island. — March 31st, about a dozen Larks. Oct. 31st, 
a flock of Larks flying about station; wind S.S.W., light. 
Dm-ing November, small flocks at intervals. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 11th, eight Larks ; wind E.S.E. 

Straw Island. — March 22nd, eight " Field Larks " at noon; 
wind S., strong. Kemained on island. 

Titlark. 

Fastnet. — Nov. 1st, fifteen. 

Tiiskar Rock. — Aug. 13th, Titlarks flying on rock. Oct. 21st, 
five, remained some time. 

Arklow South Lightship. — April 5th, one going east. Sept. 
18th, two flying round ship ; 21st, two flying east ; 25th, five 
flying N.W. Nov. 3rd, a flock flying N.W. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — April 21st, two on deck, 6 a.m. 
Sept. 20th, some Titlarks killed striking, hazy, with rain. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — May 11th, three. June 20th, two. 
Oct. 8th, foui' alighted on deck, 10 a.m. 

Copeland Island. — April 12th, two Titlarks killed striking. 
They nest on island. 

South Maidens. — Oct. 17th, six Titlarks, 10 p.m. ; weather 
foggy. 



lEISH COAST. 101 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 23rd, three, at 8 a.m. 
Innishtr ahull. — Nov. 3rd, five Titlarks; 5th, one; 22nd, three. 
Lough Sivilly. — May 2nd, two, 4 p.m. ; wind N., strong. 
Arran Island^ South. — Nov. 2nd, one Titlark striking at 4 
a.m. ; caught by keeper. 

Tearaght. — The Titlark is resident. 

Skelligs. — Titlarks common all the year ; they breed. 

Yellowhammee. 

Eathlin O'Birne. — Nov. 16th, Yellow Buntings around walls 
of station ; 22nd, large flocks of Buntings all day. 

Snow Bunting. 

Rathlin Island. — May 16th, ''shot a bird very like a Snow 
Bunting." Oct. 14th, thirty; wind N.W., squally. Some seen 
also on 15th, 17th, 18th ; Nov. 7th, and one on 29th. 

Innishtralmll. — Jan. 24th, continuous flocks of Snow Buntings 
for the rest of the month. Dec. 4th, flock at 11 a.m., apparently 
just come to island, and are on it ever since ; wind N., gale. 
Seen on 7th, 8th, 9th, and on 25th, Snow Buntings all day ; 
wind S.W., fresh. 

Arranmore. — Jan. 23rd, Snow Buntings all day. Feb. 18th, 
eight. They leave in spring. A]3ril 27th, one shot. Aug. 18th, 
one Snow Bunting at 4 p.m. ; wind S., fresh. Sept. 1st, eight. 
Dec. 8th and 11th, a few. 

Killybegs. — An occasional Snow Bunting visits us, but I have 
seen none this winter nor during the winter of 1882-3. 

Blackrock Mayo.— Oct. 30th, about thirty alighted on rock ; 
wind S.S.E., fresh, misty. Nov. 30th, about forty, 9.30 a.m.; 
wind N., light. Dec. 4th, twenty. Jan. 10th, 1884, forty on 
rock; wind strong S.W., misty. 

Arran Island^ South. — Nov. 5th, six arrived on island at 2 
p.m. ; wind S., misty. 

Tearaght. — Feb. 10th, Snow Buntings mentioned in last 
report, still on island; left about March 1st. Sept. 30th, 
about six, but may have been on the island some time previously. 
Eemained about a fortnight. 

N.B. Arranmore. — " Two Lapland Buntings shot, one on May 
1st, the other on 4th, very rare, and the oldest person has never 



102 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

seen the same species before." [These were perhaps some stage 
of plumage of the Snow Bunting. — A. G. M. and K. M. B.] 

Chaffinch. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 29th, ten. Nov. Ist, nine. Jan. 5th, 1884, 
seven about the rock. 

Old Head, Kinsale, — Dec. 16th, some hundreds ; wind N., 
frosty. 

Coninghcg Light-ship. — Oct. 27th, six about ship, one caught 
on deck ; 28th, one aHghted on ship ; 29th, a great number about 
light, many killed, and fell overboard ; gloomy. Nov. 13th, one 
rested on ship. 

Tuskar Rock.— Oct 5th, Chaffinches ; 13th, 19th, and 26th a 
few. Oct. 30th to Nov. 3rd, several during the night. Nov. 
13th, four died on rock. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — Sept. 21st, two. Oct. 29th, a 
flock ; 31st, two. 

Arkloiv North Light-ship. — Sept. 13th, six hovering about 
ship. Nov. 12th, five. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — July 14th, three at 4.30 p.m., stayed 
on ship until sunset, and then left. Oct. 8th, three alighted on 
deck, 10 a.m. Oct. 26th, one alighted. Nov. 7th, four 
alighted. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 11th, three " Finches," wind 
E.S.E. 

Tearaght. — Oct. 26th, about a dozen "Finches, several kinds," 
but cannot give the names. Eemained about a fortnight. 

Sparrow. 

Tuskar Bock. — March 1st, one Sparrow caught. 

Bathlin Island.— June 5th, 13th, and 28th, a few Sparrows 
noted (perhaps breeding). 

Killyhegs. — May 10th, observed about thirty Sparrows. They 
build in old ruins in the neighbourhood. Aug. 11th, about sixty 
perched on stays of signal mast. Sej^t. 18th, 19th, and 20th, 
Sparrows flying towards S.W. ; wind E. to E.S.E. 

Straio Island. — March 30th, two house Sparrows, 10 a.m. ; 
calm, wind S. 

Arran Island, South. — July 26th, forty Sparrows, 8 a.m. ; 
wind W.N.W., clear. 



ibish coast. 103 

Goldfinch. 

Arran Island, South. — April 3rd, six Goldfinches, 3 p.m. ; 
wind W.S.W. They remain. July 28th, Goldfinches at 10 a.m. 
Nov. 12th, ten, at 9 a.m. ; wind W.S.W. , hovering about. 

Valentia. — Oct. 4th, 10th, and Dec. 15th, two or three Gold- 
finches. They breed on the island. 

Skelligs. — Seen in October. Breed on mainland near. 

Linnets. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 9th, Linnets flying west. Nov. 2nd, eight 
killed striking. Jan. 5th, 1884, five, all day. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — March 10th, large numbers, sunrise to 
sunset. Dec. 5th, two hundred to three hundred. 

Coningheg Light- ship. — Oct. 9th, four killed on deck at 5 
a.m. ; 14th, two going N.E. ; 22nd, one alighted on ship. 

Dungarran. — Oct. 1st, flocks of Grey Linnets coming from 
S.E. Nov. 29th, flocks of Grey Linnets all day about station. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — March 21st, six flying north, and 
a few at end of March. May 8th, one. Sept. 27th, six. Oct. 
8th, one ; 19th, seven ; 22nd, large flocks. Nov. 12th, five. 
Dec. 6th, one alighted on ship. Jan. 14th, 1884, one. 

Tuskar Rock. — May 13th, Grey Linnets, 10 p.m. to 2 a.m., 
striking ; mist and fog. 

Arkloiv South Light-ship. — Oct, 26th, one Green Linnet 
flying about. 

Arkloiv North Light-ship. — Sept. 17th, some Grey Linnets 
at 8 a.m., hovering about; weather hazy. Sept. 20th, some 
Linnets killed striking ; hazy, with rain. Nov. 13th, Linnets 
about ship ; wind S.E., light, clear. 

Rockahill. — Feb. 8th, Linnets during night, some struck ; 
misty, wind S.E. 

Copeland Island. — Oct. 10th, twelve killed striking, others 
injured ; wind N., light, drizzling rain. 

Rathlin Island. — May 9th, twenty Linnets seen; 16th, four 
flocks. June 4th, twenty Grey Linnets ; 14th, thirty ; 23rd, 
seven. Entries occur Oct. 20th, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 29th ; Nov. 
3rd, 18th, 20th, 24th, 27th, and frequently during December. 
Numbers vary up to 150, and direction of flight when entered 
was south or west, and seemed independent of direction of wind. 



104 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



I 



InnishtraJmll. — Jan. 24th, continuous flocks of Green Linnets 
for the rest of month. Nov. 7th, fifty at one p.m., wind S.W., 
light ; 22nd, four at lantern, wind N.W., gale, gloomy. 

Dunree Head. — Nov. 16th, great flocks of Grey Linnets flying 
about all day. _ 

Arranmore. — Feb. 23rd, six Grey Linnets. They come daily. -J 
Dec. 19th, a flock of Grey Linnets. 1 

Rathlia O'Birne. — Sept. 21st, ten Grey Linnets alighted, and 
flew to N.E. 

Killyhegs. — I noticed during April and May nine or ten Grey 
Linnets. Aug. 11th, Linnets perched on stays of signal mast, 
6 a.m. Sept. 18th, 19th, and 20th, continuous flocks flying S.W. 
all day, arriving and departing after resting; wind E. to E.S.E. 

Oyster Island, North. — Nov. 13th, fifty passing N. ; wind S. 

Clare Island. — April 15th, Linnets during the day. 

Slyne Head, North. — July 9th, twenty Linnets appeared 10 
a.m., flying high. Nov. 11th, nine Linnets ; wind E.S.E. 

Straiv Island. — Aug. 23rd, a large number of Grey Linnets 
going south ; flying low, calm. 

Arran Island, South. — April 1st, fifty Linnets ; wind E., 
drizzling rain. Oct. 6th, forty Linnets hovering about, 4 p.m. 

Tearaght. — Jan. 30th, twelve Grey Linnets, mentioned in last 
report, left about this date. Sept. 22nd, about twelve Grey 
Linnets, 8 a.m. ; wind light E. Oct. 29th, five Grey Linnets, 
one killed striking, four taken alive ; foggy. 

** Small Birds." 

Fastnet. — Sept. 21st, twenty ; 28th, ditto. Oct. 3rd, a flock 
passing high to N.E. Oct. 7th, "mixed birds" striking glass; 
fog and mist. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — June 29th, two small birds flying 
W. ; rain and fog. July 7th, flock of '* small land birds " going 
S.E. toN.W. ; weather hazy. -Nov. 26th, flock of small birds, 
name unknown, flying low to N.W., at 11 a.m. 

Rockahill. — Feb. 8th, several small birds during night. 

Killyhegs. — Sept. 18th, 19th, and 20th, small birds. Sparrows, 
Linnets, and others unknown to me, flying in a S.W. direction all 
day; wind E. to E.S.E., cloudy, and misty. Constantly arriving, 
and departing after resting. Nov. 15th, about thirty small 
birds remained nearly all day, left at dusk. 



IRISH COAST. 105 

Clare Island, — April 15th, Linnets and *' other small yellow 
birds " during the day. 

Valentia. — Sept. 24th, four Grey Linnets. 

Bullfinch. 
Fastnet. — Oct. 31st, nine. 

Killybegs. — '* I noticed during April and May several piping 
Bullfinches." 

Slyne Head, North. — Dec. 7th, three *' Bullfinches," wind 
E.S.E. 

Starling. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 27th, eleven ; 29th, five striking. Nov. 1st, 
five. Nov. 2nd, seventeen killed striking. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Feb. 3rd, large flock coming from N. 
Oct. 30th, some hundreds of Starlings all going inland. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — May 9th, flocks of Starlings, 6 a.m., 
flying N.E. Oct. 28th and 29th, flocks about ship, nights 
gloomy, seven killed, but many struck and fell overboard ; 30th, 
seven rested on ship, 8 a.m. Nov. 2nd, two killed, 9 p.m. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 5th, small flocks ; 17th and 22nd, ditto ; 
29th, one struck lantern. They are late this year. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Oct. 28th, one rested on ship ; 
29th, another. Nov. 1st, a few. 

Tuskar Rock.— Feb. 21th, 25th, 27th, 28th, and March 3rd, 
Starlings, a considerable number struck lantern, several killed ; 
weather foggy and overcast, with mist. Oct. 9th, five killed, 
misty ; 10th, passing all night. Oct. 28th to Nov. 2nd, Starlings 
passed, with Blackbirds, Thrushes, Larks, and Chaffinches, some 
killed ; weather foggy with mist. Nov. 13th, one. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — Oct. 16th, a flock of "Stares;" 
26th, a flock; 29th, four killed striking; 31st, one seen. 

Arkloiv North Light-ship. — April 30th, Starlings around 
lantern, 11 p.m. to 11.50 p.m., did not strike ; weather hazy. 
Sept. 19th, "Stares" striking at midnight; wind light S.E., 
hazy. Oct. 30th, " Stares " striking, overcast, calm. Nov. 13th, 
" Stares " about ship, 3 p.m. Nov. 30th, some Starlings striking, 
one killed ; hazy, rain. Dec. 5th, a large flock going W., 7.45 
a.m. ; wind N. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — May 14th, five, at 10.15 p.m., about 
lantern ; weather foggy. Oct. 7th, seven struck, killed, and a 



106 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

great number fell overboard ; weatber foggy, wind light N.W. 
Oct. 27tb, numbers of Starlings, four killed striking, 9 p.m. 
Some fell overboard ; clear, wind fresh N.N.W. Nov. 7th, four, 
at 11 a.m., left shij) 2 p.m. 

Eockahill. — Oct. 31st, four killed striking ; weather gloomy, 
wind light S.E. 

Copeland Island. — Starlings appear the first week in April 
to breed here. Oct. 10th, eighteen killed striking, others injured ; 
wind light N., drizzling rain. 

Rathlin Island. — April 3rd, seventy, going N., 3 p.m. ; 14th, 
four, breeding here. Entries of two to one hundred and fifty 
occur from Oct. 24th to Dec. 25th ; most seen on Oct. 26th and 
Dec. 1st. Directions of flight when entered generally S. or W. 

Innishtr ahull. — March 14th, four, at 11 a.m. ; a gale from 
S.W. Oct. 30th, three struck, not killed; wind S.E., light, 
cloudy. Dec. 20th, four ; wind N.W., strong. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Nov. 12th, about two hundred came from 
mainland, and returned again after some time. 

Killyhegs. — The Starling, which was commonly seen here in 
winter, is now very rare. I have seen none at all this winter. 

Oyster Island^ North. — Nov. 13th, fifty passing W. ; wind S. 

Blackrocky Mayo. — Oct. 3rd, about twenty alighted on rock, 9 
a.m. ; wind N., fresh, clear. Oct. 4th, one killed striking, at 1 a.m. 

Clare Island. — During November a few occasionally in 
vicinity of lighthouse. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 28th, eight Starlings, four killed, 

10 p.m. ; wind N.E., rain. Dec. 10th, nine ;-wind N. 

Straiv Island. — Aug. 31st, four Starlings, 1 p.m., going S.W., 
low; wind fresh W. Also on Sept. 15th, and Oct. 13th, sixteen 
to twenty, going south, low. 

Arran Island, South. — April 2nd, thirty Starlings, going N., 
twenty struck, none killed ; wind S. Oct. 30th, thirty *' Stares," 

11 a.m.; wind S., blue sky, five" struck, two killed. ''Stares" 
remained here. Dec. 13th, six " Stares," 10 p.m., four killed 
striking ; wind W.S.W., drizzling rain. 

Tearaght.— Jun. 30th, twelve, and again on Feb. 18th. Did 
not leave until about March 1st. 

Valentia. — Dec. 4th, fifteen ; wind light N. 

Skelligs. — Oct. 20th, six Starlings, 11 a.m., wind N., fresh, 
fog ; 21st, two. Did not see them lafter this date. Bare here. 



IKISH COAST. 107 

Dursey Island. — Oct. 2nd, twenty going north ; 22nd, large 
flock at 2 p.m., going N.W. ; wind N.W. 

Chough. 

Tearaght. — Jan. 30th, three Choughs. In my last report I 
called these " daws." Choughs come and go occasionally all the 
year. They breed here. 

Skelligs, — They breed here ; May to August. 

Kaven. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 7th, two coming from N.E. ; rarely seen 
here. 

Copeland Island, — Aug. 20th, six alighted on island at 9 a.m. 

Arranmore. — Feb. 7th, two, at 10 a.m. Eemain all the year. 
May 8th, two. Sept. 11th, two. Oct. 18th, one. 

Arran Island, South. — Dec. 26th, three Kavens. They 
remain about here. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 20th, two Kavens about rock during month, 
also during October, November, and December. 

Hooded Crow. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Oct. 26th, ten Grey Crows. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 10th, seven. Jan. 4th, two in fields. 

Rathlin Island. — April 4th, twenty, to be seen every day. 
They remain all the year. Aug. 15th, one. 

Lough Sicilly. — April 10th, two Grey Crows. 

Arranmore. — April 26th, one passing. 

Killyhegs. — Oct. 10th, four perched on cliffs. 

Straw Island. — Feb. 22nd, forty Grey Crows at noon ; calm. 
Oct. 21st, four going west ; wind N., strong. 

Tearaght. — Feb. 13th, one Grey Crow found dead, partly 
devoured. They come and go occasionally all the year. 

Skelligs.— Be^t. 20th, four during month; also during 
October, November, and December. 

Dursey Island. — Flocks of two to fifteen Grey Crows on April 
2nd, May 20th, and July 11th; flight E. or N.E. Sept. 8th, 
four going east. 

EOOK. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Feb. 27th, one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty ; came from east. 



108 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — April 28th, two flying N.E. 

Tuskar Rock. — March 18th, one " Crow " flying west ; 25th, 
six seen. April 6th, a large flock of Rooks going west. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — March 18th, two " Crows " going 
N.W. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Dec. 1st, eight " Crows " flying low 
to N.W., 11.30 a.m. 

Copeland Island. — April 25th, a large flock of some hundred 
** Crows " came from Scotch coast and left for mainland half an 
hour afterward. Aug. 13th, about a thousand, at 11 a.m., flying 
high to south. 

Rathlin Js/cnuZ.— April 1st, forty at noon; 6th and 7th, a 
flock going north ; 16th, three. May 8th, three ; 24th, Black 
Crows going north. June 6th, flocks seen. Entries occur in 
August, October, November, and December, of flocks of Rooks 
at intervals of a week or fortnight; largest on November 11th 
and 12th. Direction of flight in nearly all cases south. 

Innishtr ahull. — April 1st, one " Black Crow " at 4 a.m. ; 
foggy. May 26th, one. 

Lough Sivilly. — June 23rd, 25th, and 30th, flocks all day. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — July 8th, fifteen Rooks. 

Killijbegs. — In April and May, ''Crows" to the number of 
about one hundred visited daily. Probably belonged to rookery 
ten miles distant. 

Oyster Islajid, North. — April 27th, thirty at 4 p.m., passing 
S.E. 

Clare Island. — Feb. 20th, a few Crows flying N.W. ; wind 
S.W., light, foggy. Oct. 25th, Black Crows flying north ; low. 

Arran Island, South. — April 6th, sixty common Crows. They 
remain. Oct. 3rd, twenty Rooks going south ; wind W.N.W. 

Valentia. — Sept. 2nd, four Black Crows. Nov. 12th, four. 

Jackdaw. 
Valentia.— Oct. 12th, two. Nov. 26th, five. 

Magpie. 

Arran Island, South. — Oct. 20th, five Magpies at noon. 
They remain about here. 

Vale?itia. — Dec. 5th, two Magpies. 



irish coast. 109 

Swallow. 
Fastnet. — Nov. 6th, two, all day about rock. 
Coninghecf Light-ship. — May 13th, flock flying N.W. ; 14th, 
continuous flocks flying N.W. Three killed at 10 p.m. ; wind 
S.W., clear. Four alighted on ship. Sept. 22nd, 23rd, and 30th, 
a great number passed, going E. and N.E. Oct. 8th, 9th, and 
10th, a few passed, four caught on deck, at 2 a.m., two alighted 
on ship. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 20th, flocks of House Swallows, going 
E.S.E. ; wind N.W., light. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — May 8th, one alighted on ship ; 
17th and 18th, occasional Swallows, flying north. June 3rd and 
6th, two or three alighted on ship. Sept. 19th and 20th, odd 
Swallows, flying north, all day. Oct. 8th, 20th, and 26th, a few 
passed. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 11th, first seen, then occasionally to 
21st and 22nd, when they passed at intervals of fifteen minutes, 
all going west. On May 8th and 13th, one or two passed ; 14th, 
constantly passing, going W. and N.W., two killed ; 15th, 16th, 
and 17th, Swallows all day, remaining on rock some hours, then 
flying W. A few passing daily to end of month, especially on 
22nd. During August and September one or two at intervals 
about rock. Aug. 24th, a great number. From Oct. 5th to 
11th, many passed to east. 

Arkloiv South Light-ship, — April 15th, several flocks ; wind 
W.N.W., clear. May 13th, a flock; 14th, 15th, and 30th, 
Swallows. On Sept. 19th, 23rd, and 28th, one to six passed. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — April 22nd, 28th, and May 18th, 
Swallows noted going N.W. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — June 25th, four passing north ; wind 
light S. 

Rockahill. — April 16th, one, the first arrival, wind W., fresh ; 
18th, several. 

Copeland Island. — Sept. 12th, several large flocks at noon ; 
wind W., moderate, clear. They waited a few hours and went S. 
Rathlin Island. — April 30th, four at noon. 
Lough Sivilly. — May 15th, a few Swallows, first seen. 
Arranmore, — April 21st, one at 7.30 a.m., passing over 
island. May 9th, one. June 16th, two. 



110 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — April 20th, one, wind N. ; 23rd and 29th, 
May 4th and 15th, one to three. 

Killyhegs. — May 10th, 11th, and 12th, two to six. They 
build in vicinity, and generally leave about the middle of June. 
Aug. 24th, about thirty hovering round. 

Straw Island, — Sept. 12th, fifty going S.W., high ; wind N., 

fresh. 

Martin. 

Oyster Island^ North. — May 8th, one Martin, the first seen ; 
12th, several. They remain and build about station. Aug. 
12th, Martins last seen. 

Cuckoo. 

Tuskar Rock. — Nov. 2nd, one Cuckoo killed striking. 

Rathlin Island. — May Srd, three or four ; heard for first time. 

Arranmore. — May 4th, one Cuckoo. May 12th, one. 

Oyster Island^ North. — May 15th, Cuckoo first heard ; wind 
N., light. 

Arran Island, South. — April 11th, "three Cuckoos," 4 p.m.; 
wind E.S.E., cloudy. 

Pigeon. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 31st, one. 

Rockahill. — Sept. 15th, ten going N. Oct. 30th, ten hovering 
about. Dec. 3rd, two shot ; 31st, Pigeons all day, one shot. 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 28th, forty Pigeons ; they are always 
on the island. Nov. 16th, eighteen going N. ; 25th, five, going S. 

Innishtr ahull. — Dec. 8th, four Pigeons ; wind S.W., light. 

Bunree Head. — Sept. 22nd, great flocks of Pigeons flying 
about all day. 

Lough Sivilly. — April 10th, flocks of Pigeons all day. 

Killyhegs. — April 22nd, four Wild Pigeons build on cliffs near 
Lighthouse. Aug. 26th, eight Wild Pigeons, 5 a.m. 

Clare Island. — Feb. 10th, sojpae Wild Pigeons, flying E., in 

forenoon. Oct. 15th, about four dozen flying generally over 

the island, also during November and December about the fields 

on the island. 

Arran Island, South. — May 14th, fifty Wild Pigeons. Dec. 

3rd, six ; 10th, twenty ; 28th, ten. They remain on island. 

Tearaght. — Oct. 21st, one Kock Pigeon ; 27th, about a dozen. 

Jan. 15th, 1884, eighteen. Nov. 18th, five Eock Pigeons ; 24th, 

about a dozen, which still remain 6n island. 



IBISH COAST. Ill 

Dursey Island. — June 7th, eight Wild Pigeons going E. ; 17th, 
two. Entries also on Aug. 24th, Sept. 10th, and Nov. 22nd. 

Paetridge. 

Rockahill. — Oct. 28th, six seen on rock in the morning ; wind 
light S.E., gloomy. 

Tearaght. — May 18th, one Partridge, at 4 p.m. 

Grouse. 

Innislitr ahull. — Nov. 1st, one Grouse, 4 p.m. ; wind light 
S.W., moderate. 

Clare Island. — Grouse are not plentiful this year. 

Golden Plover. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 9th, four " Grey " Plover, midnight ; fog & mist. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Jan. 28th, large flocks ; wind N.E. 
Feb. 15th, large flock of "Plover" coming from N. ; wind N.E. 
Dec. 17th, large flocks all day ; blue sky, frosty. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — June 16th, five ''Plover" going 
N.E. Sept. 17th, some Plovers about ship at 8 a.m. ; hazy. 

Copeland Island. — Oct. 10th, three ''Grey" Plover killed 
striking; wind N., light, drizzling rain. 

Innisntrahidl. — Sept. 3rd, six ; wind N., fresh. 18th, a pair shot. 

Tory Island. — Jan. 6th, 1884, seven resting on island. 

Arranmore. — Sept. 3rd, seventeen "Grey Plovers"; 18th, 
twenty. 

Killyhegs. — April 16th, fifteen Golden Plovers, which only 
remained a few days. A large flock of " Grey Plovers," which 
remained till the end of April. Oct. 4th, about eighty Golden 
Plovers ; remained up to this date. Dec. 2nd, Golden and Grey 
Plover begin to come about the middle of September, and are 
reinforced by flocks up to the end of November ; they usually 
leave about end of December. 

Arran Island South. — October 10th, twenty "Grey" Plover; 
wind W., going S. 

Dursey Island. — Nov. 12th, eight going W., 11 a.m. 

Green Plover. 
Coningheg Light-ship. — March 2nd, two Lapwings around 
ship ; 22nd, thirty, flying N.W. May 7th, one killed, 9.30 p.m.; 
wind E.N.E., rain. 



112 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Dungarvan. — Oct. 9th, large flocks all day about shore ; and 
on Oct. 21st and Jan. 11th, large flocks. 

Barrels Bock Light-ship, — March 21st, eight, flying N.W. 

Bockahill. — March 5th, one Green Plover struck, killed, 
4 a.m., cloudy ; wind fresh N. ; 27th, Green Plover going N. ; 
wind N., snow showers ; 28th, large flocks of Plover going N. ; 
wind S.E., snow showers. 

Copelancl Island. — April 4th, thirty, at 10 a.m. ; 7th, a large 
flock from mainland, going towards Scotch coast ; 25th, con- 
tinuous flocks flying towards Scotch coast, all day; wind E., 
clear. Sept. 29th, twenty alighted and remained on island; 
30th, large flocks, some hundreds in each, going N.E. and very 
high ; wind strong, N., gloomy. 

BatJdin Island. — April 6th, six Green Plover, 4 p.m. ; Oct. 
30th, two seen ; Nov. 24th, one. 

Innishtrahtdl. — April 2nd, four at 5 p.m. ; wind E.S.E., fresh, 
misty. Sept. 20th, about twenty "Lapwing Plover"; wind 
E.S.E., strong; stayed two days and then left, going S. 

Tory Island. — Sept. 15th, seven at noon, rested on island. 

Bathlin O'Birne. — Sept. 21st, twelve alighted, then flew to 
N.E. 

Killyhegs. — April 7th and 8th, four to eight ; they hatch in 
vicinity. 

Slyne Head, North. — Dec. 14th, four Lapwings; wind N.E. 

Tearaght. — March 24th, one Lapwing, 8 a.m.; wind N.E., 
light ; seemed tired, and remained a few hours. 

Turnstone. 
Tory Island. — Jan. 10th, 1884, flock of Turnstone, going S., 
1 p.m. ; wind N.W., gale. 

" Sand Larks." 
Old Head, Kinsale. — Dec. tlth, five Sand Larks ; these 
were strange birds. I have not seen them before on the coast. 
Coningheg Light-ship. — Dec. 9th, one, the first seen for two 

years. 

Barrels Bock Light-ship. — Jan. 19th, 19th, seven Sand 

Larks. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — April 15th, two flocks of Sand- 
birds. 



IRISH COAST. 113 

Eockahill. — Sand Larks noted in August and December. 
It is remarked they remain *'all the year." 

Innishtr ahull. — Feb. 2nd, flock of "small sea-birds," 11 a.m. 
Sept. 11th, 12th, and 13th, " Sand Larks and some other small 
sea birds, name unknown." 

Arran Island^ North. — A few Sand Larks remain during 
the winter. 

Arran Island, South. — July 27th, eighty Sand Larks. 
Nov. 18th, a flock on strand. 

Tearaght. — Dec. 13th, one Sand Lark ; 15th, three ; wind W., 
very stormy. All a greyish colour, beaks about one inch long, 
and a little red on the top towards feathers. Remained about a 
week. 

Sea Pie. 

South Maidens. — May 10th, six Sea Pies ; misty, rain. 

Rathlin Island. — Aug. 27th, three at noon. 

Arranmore. — May 18th, one Oystercatcher. 

Killyhegs. — " Sepoys " to the number of thirty or forty from 
August to end of September. 

Oyster Island, North. — Jan. 6th, 1884, six Oystercatchers on 
shore. 

Slyne Head, North. — The Sea Pie remains all the year. 

Arran Island, North. — A few " Sepoys " remain during the 
winter. 

Arran Island, South. — April 5th, thirty " Seapoys " ; wind 
E., going S. 

Tearaght. — Two Sea Pies remained round island until about 
September. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 4th, four Sea Pies until 15th. 

Redshank. 

Tuskar Rock. — May 16th, one seen. 

Skelligs. — One seen after a storm in November, very rare. 

Greenshank. 
Dungarvan. — Oct. 29th, about one dozen. Jan. 6th, a large 
flock from sea into bay. 

Heron. 

Dungarvan, — Nov. 22nd, four flying high, and apparently 
fighting. 



114 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Rathlin Island. — Oct. 6tli, one at noon ; wind light N.E. 

InnishtrahuU. — Dec. 8tli, one "Crane"; wind S.S.W., light. 

To7-y Island. — Jan. 2nd, 1884, one Heron, at noon, at lake. 

Arranmore, — Aug. 16th, one '' Crane" at 9 a.m. 

Killyhcgs. — Dec. 19th, two " Cranes " to be seen daily, in a 
swamp. 

Arran Island, South. — Oct. 25th, four "Cranes," 2 p.m.; 
wind W.N.W., going W. 

Tearaght. — Aug. 23rd, one Heron passing E. ; wind N.W.^ 
light. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 2nd, two " Cranes," 9 a.m. ; wind N., gale; 
staj^ed about the rock for a fortnight. 

Bittern. 
Old Head, Kinsale. — Feb. 15th, one Bittern, 11 a.m. ; wind 
N. This bii'd I shot ; it was the second ever seen here. 

AYhimbrel and Curlew. 

Galley Head. — May 15th, thirteen " May-birds or young 
Curlew" rested a little while on headland and passed northwards. 
May 30th, fourteen Curlew, going S.E. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — May 7th, one caught on ship; wind 
E.N.E., 9.30 p.m.; 8th, flock of Curlew, 11 p.m., around ship; 
wind strong N., overcast. Oct. 28th, flock flying N.E., 10 p.m. 

Tuskar Rock. — March 23rd, one Curlew shot. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — May 18th, a flock of Curlew 
going N.E. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — May 17th, one Curlew heard, 9.30 
p.m. July 30th, several Curlew around ship, 6.30 a.m. ; weather 

foggy- 

Copeland Island. — May loth, large flocks of Curlew appeared, 
and have remained in vicinity to date of sending schedule in 

July. 

Rathlin Island. — April 5th, four Curlew going S., 7 a.m..; 
wind N.W. May 10th, thirty Curlew, 3 p.m. ; wind N. June 
10th, flocks of Curlew, 6 a.m. ; 20th, five seen ; 24th, three. 
One or two dozen entered at intervals during the winter months. 
They are here all the year. 

InnishtrahuU. — Curlew in flocks of twenty to thirty during 
June and July. 



lEISH COAST. 115 

Lough Swilly. — March 30th, thirteen Curlew ; wind W., gale. 
May 15th, a flock of " Whimbrel Curlew," 8 a.m. ; wind W., 
light. 26th, twenty "Whimbrel Curlew," 9 a.m.; wind N.W„ 
gale. 

Tory Island. — ** Curlews remain here during the year." 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 31st and April 1st, one; July 6th, 
fifteen. 

Killyhegs. — April 1st, twenty-one Curlew, "May-birds"; 12th, 
a flock of "May-birds " ; 21st, a flock. These birds are unusually 
numerous, and some shot were in very good condition. Aug. 
31st, about one hundred Curlew. Curlew (old birds) arrive 
about the beginning of August, and remain up to the middle of 
December. Young Curlew, called " May-birds " (Whimbrel), begin 

to arrive about the end of April in small flocks, until they form 
one large flock, when they generally leave about the beginning 
of June. 

Oyster Island^ North. — May 3rd, several May-birds or young 
Curlew arrived, and remained most part of the month. 

Blacksod. — Curlew are very numerous all the year round. 

Clare Island. — Feb. 1st, about two dozen Curlew flying S. at 
noon. May 5th, flocks of " young Curlew " flying E.; wind E. 
to N. Oct. 10th, a large flock flying low, and alighting. Curlew 
during November and December, generally flying low through 
the fields. 

Arran Island^ North. — Nov. 4th, twenty Curlew; wind N.E., 
moderate, clear. 

Straw Island. — April 19th, sixty "young Curlew," 1 p.m. ; 
wind N.W., fresh ; remained a short time, and went towards shore. 

Arra7i Island, South. —April 4th, twenty Curlew, 6 a.m. 
May 13th, thirty Curlew, 8 p.m.; wind W.S.W., hazy; three 
killed. July 29th, fifty. Oct. 16th, thirty at " 3 p.m.," three 
striking, one killed ; wind S.W., drizzling rain. Nov. 15th, four 
at 3 a.m.; wind S., two killed striking, overcast and rainy. 

Tearaght. — Feb. 11th, one Curlew; wind S., strong; remained 
a few days. Dec. 18th, one; wind N.E., clear. On several oc- 
casions afterwards. Eemained about a month. 

Valentia. — Oct. 30th, fifty ; Nov. 6th, twenty. 

Dursey Island. — Two to ten Curlew at intervals from April 
30th to May 23rd. Flight in various directions. Aug. 8th, large 
flock flying N., and a few at intervals to end of month. 



116 report on the migration of birds. 

Woodcock. 

Fastnet. — Oct. 29th, one. Nov. 1st, one; 2nd, four killed 
striking. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — Dec. 17th, three. 

Coninghecj Lufht-ship. — Oct. 30th, one caught on deck, 2.30 
a.m., the first seen at this station. Nov. 2nd, one killed striking 
at 2 a.m. 

Eockahill. — Nov. 28th, one killed striking ; wind S., fresh, 
cloudy and overcast. 29th, another killed. 

South Maidens, — Oct. 15th, one killed, 11 p.m., drizzling 
rain; wind light W.S.W. 

Arranmore. — Dec. 3rd, one Woodcock. 

Killyhegs. — Sept. 21st, one Woodcock killed striking, 11.30 
p.m. ; wind E.S.E., cloudy and misty. 22nd, another killed, 
8 p.m. ; wind E. 

Clare Island. — During November, a few Woodcock in moun- 
tainous parts of island. 

Skelligs. — Nov. 4th, Woodcock seen. 

Dursey Island. — Nov. 4th, one Woodcock going N. ; wind N.E. 

Snipe. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 8th, twenty Snipe, six shot. Dec. 
17th, five Snipe. 

Tuskar Rock. — Oct. 29th, one Snipe killed striking; light mist. 

Copeland Island. — Snipe breed here. Oct. 10th, two killed 
striking ; wind N., light drizzling rain. 

South Maidens. — Oct. 19th, one Snipe killed striking ; wind 
fresh S.S.W., clear. 

Ilathlin Island. — Aug. 9th, one Jack Snipe killed striking; 
wind light S.E., cloudy. 

Arranmore. — Nov. 20th, one Snipe ; 30th, one. 

liathlin O'Birnc. — Oct. 18th, two Snipe on the shore. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Oct. 14tlr, one Jack Snipe, 1 p.m. ; wind 
W., light. 

Clare Island. — Feb. 28th, a few Snipe flying W. ; wind S.W. 
Oct. 20th, Snipe on marshy land, flying in different directions. 

Tcaraght. — Feb. 18th, one Snipe, 10 a.m. ; wind light S.W., 
fine ; previously stormy. Nov. 20th, one ; 23rd, three ; left 
about a fortnight afterwards. 

Skelligs. — Jan. 12th, 1884, Snipe seen. 



irish coast. 117 

Corn Crake. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 27th, came on rock in night. May 8th, 
another ; 16th, one much exhausted ; 29th, one. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — May 16th, one struck lantern, 11.10 
p.m., killed ; wind light, clear. 

Rockahill. — July 30th, one caught on rock. 

Rathlin Island. — May 13th, heard for first time. 

Oyster Island, North. — May 17th, Landrail first heard. 

Skelligs. — May 5th, one seen, very rare 

Waterhen. 
Old Heady Kinsale. — Nov. 8th, five Waterhen. 
Coningheg Light-ship. — Oct. 8th, one alighted on ship, 6 a.m. ; 
calm, thick fog. 

Coot. 
Old Heady Kinsale. — Nov. 8th, twenty Coot (a marsh near). 

Geese. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — Feb. 10th, three Wild Geese, came from 
S. Oct. 15th, three going N. 

Dungarvan. — Nov. 20th, eleven flying N. and very high. 

Rockahill. — Oct. 28th, six going E. in the morning; weather 
gloomy. 

Copeland Island. — April 12th, eight going from mainland 
towards Scotch coast. Dec. 10th, eight Wild Geese rested on 
island, came from N. ; wind S.W., fresh, rain. 

South Maidens. — June 12th, twelve Wild Geese. 

Rathlin Island. — Oct. 23rd, two Wild Geese, 7 a.m. ; wind 
strong N.W. 

Innishti'ahidl. — Jan. 24th, flock of thirty Barnacle ; wind 
S.W., strong. March 12th, fifteen going N.; wind S.W., strong. 
14th, twenty-four Wild Geese; wind S.W., gale. 15th, six 
Barnacle ; wind strong W., squally. Oct. 13th, one Wild Goose; 
wind S., fresh. 23rd, nine Barnacle; 24th to 28th, nine to 
twenty Barnacle. Dec. 14th, three Wild Geese ; 17th, seventeen 
Barnacle. 

Dunree Head. — Aug. 1st, one hundred Barnacle flying 
very high to the N. Sept. 12th, about two hundred Wild 
Geese flying low to the N. Oct. 14th, several flocks of Barnacle 
going S. ; wind N.W., strong. 24th, twenty Wild Geese going S. 



118 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Tory Island. — Oct. 7th, 8th, and 12th, flocks of Wild Geese, 
4 to 6 a.m. ; wind W. and S.W., going W. and S. 

Arranmore. — January, thirty-six Barnacle; these birds have 
remained all the winter; have not done so for years before. Feb. 
4th, twenty-two. March 2nd, two flocks passing. Sept. 30th, 
one Barnacle ; wind N., fresh. Oct. 20th, one ; 31st, a flock, 
and flying all night for many nights, in great quantities, in the 
direction of Sligo. Far the last two winters numerous flocks of 
Barnacle have remained on island. On Nov. 7th, 24th, 29th, 
and Dec. 25th, flocks are entered. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — Oct. 24th, thirty-six. Nov. 4th, twenty 
came from N., and passed over island to S.E. : 12th, six; 16th, 
small flocks coming from N., and passing S. all day. Dec. 7th, 
eleven on island grazing. 11th, six ditto; two were shot. 

Killijhegs. — Aug. 17th, two Wild Geese, rested and flew N. 
Sept. 2nd, about forty at a great height, flying N. ; 27th, thirteen 
seen. Oct. 30th, eight Wild Geese generally take a S. to S.W. 
course, beginning about the end of September and continuing up 
to the end of December, and usually travel high ; but they 
sometimes stop to feed and rest. 

Oyster Island, North. — ''During the winter months a con- 
siderable number of Barnacle arrive, some of which remain, and 
others pass further south, the time of their arrival and departure 
apparently depending on the severity of the season or otherwise." 
Entries of small flocks occur from Sept. 9th to Oct. 5th. Larger 
and more frequent flocks on Oct. 8th, 13th, 15th, Nov. 22nd, 
29th, 30th, and on Dec. 5th ; in almost every case the direction 
of flight is S. or S.E. On. Dec. 6th, 15th, and 17th, large flocks 
passed in the opposite direction. On Dec. 22nd continuous 
flocks again passed SE., and on Jan. 5th, 1884, a small flock. 
The direction of flight was apparently independent of the 
direction of the wind or state of the weather. 

Broadhaven. — Dec. 20th and ^th. Barnacle and Wild Geese. 
They frequent the place in winter. 

Blackrock Mayo. — Nov. 21st, twenty Barnacle flying S.E. 

Clare Island. — Oct. 6th, about two dozen Wild Geese flying 
high to S.W. ; wind W., light. 

Slyne Head, North. — Nov. 12th, five to twelve Barnacle at 
intervals; wind N.W., one shot. Are very common; arrive 
Nov. 1st and remain to March 1st. ^ 



IRISH COAST. 119 

Straiv Island. — March 16th, twenty Wild Geese, passing N.; 
wind light S.W. Oct. 29th, twenty-two, 5 p.m., going N., high, 
calm. 

Swans. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 23rd, " A Black Swan shot by the 
rector on one of the lakes on the island." 

Wild Duck. 

Fastnet. — Nov. 3rd, flock flying to E. Jan. 3rd, flock fly- 
ing E. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Nov. 8th, ten Wild Duck ; two shot. 

Dungarvaii. — Oct. 28th, large flock. Nov. 3rd, fifty. Dec. 
23rd, four *' Shelldrakes." 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — Sept. 10th, 12th, and 15th, a few 
Wild Duck flying high to S. Nov. 16th, a large flock flying N.E. 
Dec. 7th, 14th, and 19th, two to seven at intervals. 

Tuskar Rock. — Nov. 14th, seven Wild Duck came from N.W. 
and flew round rock. 

Arklow North Light-ship. — Dec. 1st, a large flock going N. 
Feb. 6th, 1884, flock going N.E. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — May 13th, a flock passing E. to W., 
7.30 a.m. Oct. 6th, twelve at 10.45 p.m., flying high to N.W. ; 
weather hazy. Nov. 29th, thirteen flying N.W. 

Copeland Island. — April 12th, thirty left Mew Island after 
remaining all the winter; wind light E., clear. Oct. 16th, 
several flocks of Teal and Duck on Mew Island ; wind S.W., 
strong. 

South Maidens. — April 14th, twenty-four Ducks ; hazy, with 
rain. Oct. 20th, twelve, 10 a.m., went towards Scotland ; wind 
W.S.W., strong. 

Rathlin Island. — Nov. 6th, five at 8 a.m. ; wind S. Dec. 6th, 
two going E.; wind N.E. 

Innishtrahidl. — Nov. 6th, one " Shelldrake," 2 p.m. ; wind 
N., fresh. 

Dunree Head. — Nov. 7th, about one hundred Wild Duck 
flying high to S. Dec. 22nd, about fifty swimming opposite 
lighthouse all day. 

Tory Island. — Nov. 23rd, Dec. 1st, 2nd, and Jan. 1st, one to 
three going S. or W. 

Arranmore. — April 5th, two arrived to breed. June 18th, three 



120 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

seen. On Nov. 3rd, 10th, 28th, and Dec. 13th, Wild Duck seen. 
One ** Shelldrake " on Nov. 18th and 26th. 

Killyhegs, — **I saw, in December, 1882, some Teal, but none 
since." 

Oyster Island, North. — ** During the winter months a con- 
siderable number of Widgeon arrive ; some remain, and others 
pass further south." Dec. 24th, continuous flocks going S.E. 

Clare Island. — December. A few Wild Duck on a lake during 
this month. 

Straw Island. — Feb. 13th, thirty, 10 a.m., remained on rock 
a short time, and went S. Oct. 28th, thirty going S.E. ; wind 
light S. 

Arran Island, South. — Dec. 6th, twenty Wild Duck went S. ; 
wind E. 30th, twenty went S., wind E. 

Merganser. 
Dungarvan, — Dec. 5th, four coming from S.E. 

Great Northern Diver. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Jan. 20th, six passing S.W. 

Dungarvan. — Jan. 9th, two feeding near station. 

Tory Island. — Sept. 22nd, two *' Speckled Diver," 8 a.m., 
going S.E. 

Arranmore. — April 7th, a Great Northern Diver shot on rock. 

Killyhegs. — The Northern Diver visits us in the autumn and 
leaves early. I have never seen more than three together. 

Clai^e Island. — During December a few of the Great Northern 

Diver. 

Guillemot. 

Rathlin O'Birne. — March 31st, ten, and April 1st, thirty 
alighted on rock at shore. 

Clare Island.— A large number this year. 

Tearaght. — Jan. 20th, Guillemot first observed round island 
on the water. Feb. 19th, about fifty came on rock for first time ; 
left about Aug. 1st. 

Skelligs. — Nov. 20th and Dec. 11th, a few Guillemots fishing 
in shelter of rock; wind N.W. to W., strong gale. 

Barrels Rock Light-ship. — June 15th and 19th, " Murs " in 
flocks, flying in different directions. Dec. 10th, large flocks of 
'*Murs"; also on 23rd and 26th; flocks also on 29th, 30th, Jan. 
8th and 15th. 



IRISH COAST. 121 

Puffin. 

Galley Head. — Feb. 12th, twenty going W. ; 16th, nine ditto. 
April 29th, continuous flocks, from seventy to one hundred in 
each, going W. From May 6th to 13th, 18th to 27th, and June 
16th to 25th, continuous flocks, and occasional flocks to July 
16th ; all going W. 

Old Heady Kinsale. — Jan. 23rd, continuous flocks, 9 a.m. to 
3 p.m. ; wind fresh S. Large numbers going S. on Feb. 7th, 
20th, 22nd, and March 17th ; continuous flocks on March 5th. 
From Oct. 7th to 10th, some hundreds going S. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — April 21st, continuous flocks flying 
S.W. ; 26th, flocks. Nov. 16th, flocks, 9 to 11 a.m. ; 21st, 23rd, 
Dec. 9th and 14th, flocks; passing continuously on Nov. 29th 
and Dec. 19th ; wind W. to S.W. 

Dungarvon.—^OY. 6th, a great number. 

Tuskar Rock, — From June 13th to 18th, "Puffins and Sea- 
parrots " alighted in large flocks. Aug. 20th to 22nd, Puffins in 
hundreds on rock. 

Rathlin Island. — April 12th, "Parrots, Bridle Nebs," &c., 
begin to arrive ; 22nd, arrived in full force and took possession 
of the cliffs. The Sea-parrots hatching on the cliffs are not at 
all as numerous as last year. 

Innishtr ahull. — Dec. 8th, "three Sea-parrots and twenty 
Puffins." January, 1884, a few " Puffins and Sea-parrots through 
the month." 

Lough Swilly.—Ai^vil 19th, several flocks of Puffins. June 
1st, Puffins passing and repassing. 

Arranmore. — March 12th, Puffins passing. 

Rathlin O'-Birne.— May 14th, Puffins passing S. In June, 
about the island. 

Killyhegs. — A'pvil 22nd, Puffins arriving in large numbers 
about this date, coming early each morning and leaving in the 
evening, flying W. Aug. 14th, Puffins leaving, going W. They 
arrive about the month of July, and are to be seen in thousands 
until October. 

Oyster Island, iVori/i.— April 19th, several during day. May 

29th, small flocks. 

Black Rock, Ma^/o.— Sept. 9th, Puffins on water round the 
rock ; a few nearly every day during September and October. 



122 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Clare Island.— March 15th, about fifty; wind N.N.E. Gene- 
rally arrive latter part of March, and leave towards the end of 
August. A large number this year. 

Straw Island, — March 17th, forty Puffins remained two days ; 
wind S., hazy fog. April 9th, twenty '' Sea-parrots," wind S.W., 
strong. Aug. 20th, forty-four going S. They arrive early in 
spring and generally leave in September, and breed on the middle 
island of Arran. 

Tearaght.—^' April 1st, the Sea-parrots arrived ; not so plen- 
tiful as in previous years. Aug. 20th, only about half a dozen 
Sea-parrots on the island ; left about this date. When they 
arrive on April 1st they remain perhaps a week on the water 
before they come on the island ; then they mostly rise in one 
body, and hover some time before they rest. They all go down to 
the water again when getting dark, except when breeding ; those 
hatching remain. As a rule there is a rush to the island every 
day about 4 p.m. Sometimes there are two rushes in the day. 
Their fighting propensities are often put into practice, and when 
so engaged they can readily be captured ; their fight only ends 
when they have reached the sea, after having tumbled sometimes 
all the way from the highest pinnacle of the island." 

Skelligs,^NoY, 20th, a few Puffins fishing in shelter of rock ; 

wind N.W., gale. 

Eazorbill. 

Clare Island.— A])ril 30th, two to four dozen Eazorbills at 
9 a.m. 

Tcaraglit. — March 19th, great numbers of Eazorbills first 
observed ; 20th, first rested on rock. Left about Aug. 10th. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 16th, large flocks flying S.S.W. ; wind S.E. 
Nov. 20th, flocks fishing in shelter of rock, mostly young birds ; 
wind N.W., strong gale. Dec. 11th, Eazorbills fishing in shelter; 
wind W., strong gale. 

Cormorant. 

Tuskar Rock. — April 27th, the Cormorants have totally de- 
serted the rock. 

Hock ahilL— Oct. 30th, Cormorants all day; they leave the 
rock in April, and are back this month. 

Eathlin Island. — June 22nd, five seen. Aug. 17th, three. 
Dec. 4th, 5th, and 9th, one to six. 

Tory Island, — Dec. 11th, six onu'ock at 9 a.m. 



IRISH COAST. 123 

Killyhegs. — May 2nd, Cormorants to the number of about 
forty observed. Aug. 26th, about seventeen. The greater 
number leave about the end of December, but some remain all 
the winter. 

Blackrock, Mayo. — Sept. 30th, five flying S.E. A few nearly 
every day during September and October. 

Clare Island, — Cormorants are seen all the year round. 

Slyne Heady North. — The Cormorant leaves to breed else- 
where. 

Straw Island. — Feb. 22nd, Cormorants at all hours. Eemain 
during the year, generally fishing singly. Sept. 24th, ten. 

Arran Island, South. — Nov. 11th, eleven Cormorants seen at 
intervals along the shore. 

Valentia. — Se^Dt. 20th, four. Nov. 16th, two ; 22nd, five. 
Dec. 5th, eight ; also on 21st and 24th. 

Skelligs.— One or two entered on Sept. 20th, Oct. 12th, and 
during December. 

Dursey Island. — A few noted on April 11th and July 13th, 
and one to four seen at intervals from Sept. 27th to Dec. 18th. 

Gannet. 

Galley Head. — Five to twelve going W. on Jan. 29th, Feb. 
7th, April 11th, May 14th, 18th to 27th ; continuous flocks of 
Gannets going W. on March 19th, 20th, 27th, 28th, June 16th to 
25th ; and in less numbers to date of sending schedule, July 
16th. No entry of Gannets going E. at this station exce^^t on 
April 20th. One or two grey or young Gannets seen on May 
14th and June 16th. 

Old Head, Kinsale.— Jsin. 20th to 23rd, continuous flocks 
passing S.W. Large flocks on Feb. 7th, 22nd, and March 17th. 
On Oct, 5th and 6th, some hundreds going S. Nov. 5th, forty- 
five going E. ; 20th, Gannets. 

Coningheg Light-ship. — April 29th, four flying W. June 6th, 
two Gannets, and at intervals to end of month. Oct. 15th, four 
flying E. ; and from 31st to Dec. 1st, one to five passing at 
intervals. 

Barrels Rock Light-shij). —Ain'il 27th, May 18th, 20th, and 
26th, occasional Gannets flying W. June 27th, Gannets in twos 
and threes. Oct. 23rd, occasional Gannets, and a few at intervals 
until January. 



124 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Arklow South Lightship. — March 10th, a flock; 26th, seven. 
During April flocks at intervals, especially towards end of month. 
In May two to seven passing at intervals in various directions. 
During June, July, August and September a few Gannets seen 
frequently. In October less common. 

Arklow North Li ght -ship. ~ Ga^nnets noted at intervals during 
April, May, and June ; May 1st and 12th, flocks continuous. 
Flight generally N.E. September, flocks at intervals. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Three entries of Gannets in May, 
one in June, and one in July ; direction of flight difterent in each 
case. Oct. 3rd, six flying S.W. Nov. 23rd, flocks from 10 a:m. 
to 4 p.m. going to S.W. 

Copeland Island. — Gannets remain about the island all the 
year. In August this year large numbers fishing in vicinity. 

South Maidens.— T-^o entries of Gannets in April. Oct. 20th, 
two seen. 

Rathlin Island. — Foui'teen entries occur in schedule between 
March 28th and June 17th ; in eleven the direction of flight was 
entered, and in all it was towards the west, and seemed in- 
dependent of the weather. On April 13th, 19th, 21st, May 4th, 
7th, 12th, 13th, 23rd, and June 2nd the flocks were passing all 
day. During August foui* entries occur, but direction of flight is 
not given. One entry in October. 

Innishtrahull. — Jan. 8th, four Gannets ; Avind strong S.W. 

Lough Swilly.— May 1st, 20th, and July 30th, a few noted. 

Tory Island.— lso\. 13th, two going E. ; noon. 

Arranmore. — March 9th and 26th, four to six passing all day. 
Oct. 14th, twelve. 

Rathlin 0'Birne.—k])Y\\ 6th and 18th, a few. May 14th and 
18th, continuous flock all day going S. In June Gannets around 
island at intervals. Sept. 9th, 19th, a few. Oct. oth and 6th, 
hundreds; most left about Oct. Uth. 

Killyhegs. — April 9th, two; 12th, about thirty, usually in 
pairs. Aug. 14th, Gannets leaving. Gannets begin to arrive in 
June, sometimes earlier, and mostly leave in September; then- 
movements are very uncertain. 

Oyster Island, North. — Gannets noted at intervals from April 
5th to 18th. 

Blackrock, Mayo. — To be seen nearly every day during Sep- 
tember and October. 



IRISH COAST. 125 

Slyne Head, North. — Aug. 1st, numbers of young Gannets 
are to be seen. Gannets entered on Aug. 10th, 17th, very com- 
mon, and flocks at intervals on Nov. 17th ; and thirty on Nov. 
25th. 

Straio Island. — Feb. 10th, fifteen Gannets seen at 2 p.m., 
strong breeze, W., going S. Gannets entered on Aug. 8th, Sept. 
3rd, and Oct. 11th, generally hovering about. It generally 
makes its appearance with various kinds of fish, mackerel, 
pilchards, &c. 

Arran Island, South. — Nov. 29th, two at noon ; remained 
three days. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 20th, several fishing. Nov. 20th, saw no 
Gannets since Oct. 29th. 

Dursey Island. — Seven to thirty noted at intervals during 
April and on May 11th and 29th ; flight generally W. or N.W. 
A few noted Aug. 11th ; Sept. 6th, large flocks all day going S. ; 
and a few on Sept. 28th. 

Tern. 

Copeland Island.— The Terns appear on Mew Island to breed 
on May 15th and 16th. They come in the night, at first in small 
numbers, increasing each night for ten or twelve nights, when 
many hundreds are to be seen. Sept. 19th, some hundreds of 
Terns left Mew Island on this date; wind S.E., light misty rain. 
Heard leaving during night. 

Rathlin O'Birne — Terns arrived at usual time ; they breed on 
island outside lighthouse. 

Oyster Island, North. — April 8th, five Terns passing S.; 12th, 
several during day. 

Slyne Head, North. — May 20th, the Tern arrives for breeding, 
and continues until about Aug. 2nd. 

Gulls. 

Galley Head. — June 1st to 15th, large flocks of Gulls after 
fry. 

Old Head, Kinsale. — Oct. 7th to 10th, some hundreds going 
S. Nov. 20th, Grey Gulls. 

Coningheg Light-skip. — April 22nd, flocks of Grey Gulls ; 26th, 
ditto. June 13th, ditto. Nov. 21st, flocks of small Gulls. 

Dunga7'van,~-'^0Y. 6th, a great number. 



126 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Barrels Eock Light-ship. — July 3rd and 9th, Sea Gulls in 
flocks, flying E. after fry. During November and part of 
December large flocks apparently after small fish, working east 
and west with the tides. 

Tuskar Bock. — From June 13th to 18th, Gulls alighted in 
large flocks. 

Arklo2c North Light-ship. — April 1st, continuous flocks of 
Grey Gulls going N.E. 

Kish Bank Light-ship. — Flocks of Grey Gulls noted on May 
8th, 25th, and June 15th. Oct. 16th, flock of Grey Gulls hover- 
ing about all day. Nov. 27th, a flock all day after fry. 

Bockabill. — Gulls come in April and leave at the end of 
September. 

Copdand Island. — Herring Gulls remain about the island all 
the year. In August a large number of Grey and Koyal Gulls 
fishing in vicinity. 

Eathlin Island. — Flocks of Gulls on March 29th, May 1st, 
18th, 22nd, June 8th, 20th, and 27th ; direction of flight not 
given. Flocks during August of twenty to thirty Eoyal Gulls 
at intervals. Two or three thousand Kittiwakes on 11th and 
30th. Entries of Gulls occur twice in November, and large 
flocks going S. on Dec. 17th, 21st, and 30th. 

Innishtrahidl. — Dec. 25th, two Eoyal Gulls. 

Lough Sivilly. — April 1st, a few ; 6th, several ; 19th, in great 
numbers. May 1st, ditto. May 20th and June 1st, Gulls. July 
27th, very numerous all day. 

Tory Island. — Sept. 5th, a flock of ** Common Gulls " flying 
W. Nov. 15th, three Black-backed Gulls at 8 a.m., going E.; 
28th, a flock of Gulls. 

Arranmore. — March 12th, Gulls passing. 

Eathlin O'Birne. — Flocks of fifty to one hundred on April 
10th, 12th, 28th, and May 8th.^ In June, Gulls about island. 
Flocks of Gulls from one hundred to thousands on Aug. 31st, 
Sept. 19th, 20th, 30th, Oct. 5th, and 6th. The greater number 
left on Oct. 17th. On Nov. 4th, 22nd, and Dec. 7th, eighty to 
one hundred all day. 

Killyhegs. — Gulls of the grey species to the number of 
about two hundred remained here during spring, coming in the 
morning and departing in the evening to the cliffs around Slieve 
League. Thousands of Kittiwakes arrived about beginning of 



IRISH COAST. 127 

May, and still (August) remain. Aug. 14th, several hundreds 
leaving. Kittiwakes and Grey Gulls usually arrive in large 
numbers about June or July, and leave towards the end of 
September ; but a few, notably the large grey kind, remain all 
the month. 

Oyster Island, North. — Gulls noted on April 12th, 18th, 22nd, 
May 24th, and 29th. 

Broadhaven. — Oct. 10th, three dozen Kittiwakes ; 24th, four 
dozen Black-headed Gulls. 

Blackrock, Mayo. — Sept. 9th, flocks of small Gulls on water. 
Sept. 22nd and Jan. 5th, 1884, two Koyal Gulls. Large and 
small Gulls nearly every day during September and October. 

Clare Island. — March 15th, about a dozen small Sea Gulls 
during day. A large number of Gulls of different species in the 
cliffs near lighthouses this year. Kittiwakes are here all the 
year. 

Slyne Head, North. — Gulls noted on Aug. 20th and Nov. 17th. 

Arran Island, North. — Nov. 14th, ten; wind fresh W.S.W. 

Straiv Island. — Feb. 13th, the Grey and the Koyal Gull con- 
tinually in vicinity of lighthouse. The Grey Gulls remain during 
year. Gulls entered Aug. 13th, Sept. 1st, and Oct. 5th (Koyal). 
Flight generally S.W. 

Arran Island, South. — July 25th, fifty Sea Gulls. Nov. 27th, 
Sea Gulls about shore to be seen at all times. 

Tearaght. — Feb. 6th, Kittiwakes first came on rock about 
this time ; left about Sept. 1st. *' They commence to build about 
May 1st. On May 24th only two eggs were found among 
hundreds of nests. The nest-building is carried on by some 
after hatching has commenced with others. A difficult business 
this nest-making seems to be, as the mud or clay which makes 
up the foundation has to be carried from some soft bank. 
Hundreds of them are employed about six weeks at this 
operation, some going with the very small portion of mud 
they are able to take in their beaks, others coming for more, 
the bank covered over with more in the act of digging out. 
The whole is a continuous busy scene." 

Valentia. — Koyal Gulls, one to four, Sept. 10th, 30th, Oct. 
28th, and Nov. 10th. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 16th, observed large flocks of Kittiwakes 
flying S.S.W. ; wind S.E. Grey Gulls noticed from September 



128 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

to January, and two to four Black-backed Gulls occasionally. 
Kittiwakes fishing in shelter of rock, Nov. 20th and Dec. 11th ; 
wind strong gale, N.W. and W. 

Dursey Island. — Large flock of Gulls noted on April 7th, 
25th, 27th, and May 5th. A few on May 27tli, and at intervals 
to July. Large flocks on Aug. 25th and Sept. 18th, going W. 
Four Royal Gulls on Dec. 22nd. 

Skua Gull. 

Galley Head. — Jan. 20th, flocks of five to seven Skua Gulls 
going W. 

Coninghcg Lir/ht-ship, — Oct. 28th, two Skuas chasing Gulls. 

Tiiskar Rock. — June 7th, flocks alighted on rock four 
mornings in succession at same hour. Aug. 20th to 22nd, Skua 
Gulls in hundreds. 

Lough Sivilly. — June 22nd, one "Boatswain Skua Gull." 

Valentia, — Nov. 22nd, four Skua Gulls. 

Manx Shearwater. 

Barrels Rock Light-sliip. — July 6th, ''Mackerel Cocks" flying 
in different directions. 

Ratldin Island. — April 12th, Shearwater began to arrive; 
22nd, more arrived. 

Tearaght. — Jan. 30th, " Mackerel Cock " in great numbers 

diving round rock ; observed a fortnight previous to this date. 

Feb. 25th, " Mackerel Cock " (believed to be) left, always diving, 

and did not come on rock. April 5th, note of the Shearwater 

first heard. Nov. 21st, " Mackerel Cock " diving about the rock 

pretty plentifully. Not certain about this bird. The Manx 

Shearwater left about Aug. 1st. It was heard frequently during 

the summer, and always on very dark calm nights. The sounds, 

being frequent and distinct, were, very impressive. When the 

moon would rise, or it would clear, a single note was not to be 

heard. 

Stormy Petrel. 

Coninghcg Light-ship. — Oct. 9th, five* Mother Carey's 
Chickens caught on deck, 5 a.m. ; wind light, hazy. Oct. 
15th, two Stormy Petrels about ship ; 28th, two caught on deck, 
10.30 p.m. 

Arklow South Light-ship. — April '24th, one; wind light E. 



IKISH COAST. 129 

Tearaght, — Stormy Petrel very plentiful this year. They are 
not much observed until July, from which time they continue 
breeding until September. They make a noise which is a con- 
tinuous chain of articulations, and might be heard on a calm 
night a distance of 300 feet ; this noise is kept up by those in 
the holes as well as those on the wing. 

Skelligs. — Sept. 4th, two struck, 10.30 p.m., not killed ; did 
not notice any after this date. They breed here. 

Birds not Identified. 

Rockabill. — "March 6th, large bird, name unknown, killed 
striking, at 3 a.m. ; wind N., fresh, cloudy. Had long bill, and 
long black legs." 

Killyhegs. — April 8th, "three strange birds, name unknown. 
White fan-shaped tail, tipped with black; wings white, tipped 
with black ; white ring round neck ; size of Sparrow ; came 
from seaward, and remained several days." 

Tearaght. — May 20th, " one bird, not known, about the size 
of a Lapwing ; colour of a Grey Plover, land-bred, fan-tail, tips 
of feathers of tail white, chased by Crows." 

Tearaght. — Oct. 28th, " small bird, size of a Linnet ; 
shoulders red or copper-colour; breast and belly grey, also 
round neck; head tufted. It remained about a week." 

Tearaght. — Nov. 18th, " a bird about the size of a Linnet 
came on island ; above eyes a white curved streak ; -eyes and 
round eyes black; under head, round breast, a white ring, 
thence down belly, wings, and back of a reddish or copper- 
colour ; some white feathers in wing ; top of head black, and 
tail appears narrow and black. Two of these, one readily dis- 
tinguished from the other." 



WEST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS, 54, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON, E.C. 




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